Dr Chef Soundararajan’s Culinary Dictionary

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A laIn the style of
A la carteIndividual food items priced seperately
A la Carte MenusA menu is one in which each individual item is listed and priced separately.
A la KingDiced chicken or turkey, in a cream of mushroom, pimentos, green peppers and sherry
A la modeIn the fashion
A l'AlgerienneA garnish made with whole baby tomatoes braised in oil, and sweet potatoes cooked in butter
AbaisseUsed to describe a technique of pastry making, wherein the pastry sheet or piece should be rolled to a specific thickness based on what it is to be intended to use with
AbaisseA piece or sheet of pastry, rolled out to a certain thickness. Also used to describe a layer of sponge cake or biscuit.
AbaloneA sea snail, with the fresh abalone meat carrying a subtle flavor. Must be tenderized before processing as it has a tough texture
AbaloneAstropod found in the Coastal regions of California, Mexico and Japan. The adductor muscle is the edible part, by which it holds to rocks
Awabi /OrmerA smooth-textured snail-like shellfish, usually available dried, frozen or canned. Used extensively for flavouring - in soups, red-cooking, or mixed frying.
Abata (French )French term for Offal
AbattisPoultry winglets
Abel-MuskSeeds of the aromatic Ambrette plant, which give off a very strong flavour of Musk. Can be mixed with coffee to flavour and heighten its stimulating properties.
ABERDEENA Scottish specialty, the Abroath or Aberdeen smokies are small haddocks split, gutted, closed again and smoked whole with the back bone intact. The cooking time for a smokie is usually about 30 - 40 minutes Golden brown and headless, the flesh is creamy with a savoury flavour. Smokies are best eaten straight off the barrel however they may also be buttered outside and inside and lightly grilled or warmed in the oven. Smokies can be refrigerated for upto 7 days or frozen for upto 3 months if packed and stored properly.
ArbroathSmall haddocks that are split and gutted, and smoked as a whole after closing again. This Scottish specialty is golden brown and has no head, and can be consumed cold without requiring additional cooking. Goes well with buttered toast or together in a salad
AbricoteA cake or pudding masked with apricot marmalade.
AbsintheA historical pale green liqeur with a very high alcoholic content, distilled from wormwood, anise, and aromatic plants
AbsintheLiqueur made from the leaves of Wormwood.
Abura-Age (Japanese)Deep-fried cakes of soybean curd. Sold cling-wrapped or frozen.
AcerolaFound in areas along the West Indies, a fruit with properties of a cherry. Also known as the Barbados Cherry or the Puerto Rican Cherry, it is rich in Vitamin C
AcerolaA cherry-like fruit from a small tree in the West Indies and adjacent areas. This fruit contains a high concentration of vitamin C. It is also called as 'Barbados cherry" and "Puerto Rican cherry."
AcetabulaA family of fungi, remarkable for their broad, fleshy cupola.
Acetic AcidVinegar base, produced by fermenting cider and wines
AcharA word for pickles mixed with chilli to give pungent taste and flavor.
AchioteFlavouring and colouring agent.
AcidifyThe process of adding an acid like lemon juice or vinegar while cooking
AcidityThe natural existence of an acidic taste in food items
AcidulateAcidifying a preparation to render it slightly sour to taste
AckeeA fruit in the shape of a pear, witha thick red-orange skin and a creamy yellow flesh; the Aril, which is the edible section
Acorn SquashA ribbed winter squash with a dark green skin and mildly sweet orage flesh. The word is of Massachusetts-Indian origin. ' A squash' meaning eaten green
AdaiA pan cake sort of food made on a pan, with little oil, a mixture of rice and four different lentils.
AdvocaatA golden dutch liqeur, concocted with brandy, egg yolks and vanilla flavoring
Adzuki BeanA sweet bean; small and dried
Agar-agarA product of red seaweed, with gelatin-like strong setting properties
AgneauA sheep aged less than a year
AgnolottiDishes made with the small half moon-shaped pasta shells, often fileld with Tortellini
Aguardiente (Spanish)A hot transparent spirit, distilled from vegetables
AhiA rendition of tuna, with a pale pink flesh and a milk flavor
AiguillettesFish meat cut into strips
AilladeA word colloquial in South France, used to describe food that has a dominant garlic flavor
AioliGarlic oil
AkeeA pear shaped fruit found in West Africa. Toxic when unripe, but ripens to a light colored flesh that resembles scrambled eggs when cooked
Al denteThe etymology is Italian "to the tooth". In contemporary Italian cooking, the term identifies the ideal consistency for pasta and rice
Alaskan CodA saltwater fish, with a soft textured flesh. High fat content and a mild flavor. Also called as "Sablefish."
AlbacoreA deep sea fish from the tuna family. Game fish with white meat
Albondigas (Spanish)Meatballs
Albarino (Spanish)Fresh white wine crisp in taste; name after the primary grape in this Galician wine
Albondigas con sepia(Spanish): Meatballs with stew of cuttlefish chunk and peas
AlbumenEgg whites
AlbuminThe protein that constitutes parts of milk, egg whites and blood. Soluble in water and other solutions when heated
AlcoholOf Arab origin, the prime ingeredient of wines, spirits and beer; a chemical known as ethyl alchohol
Alder woodDelicate flavoured wood, used for smoking salmon
AleTermed to describe an alcoholic drink brewed from barley malt
Ale PossetAn ancient English drink, made with equal proportions of hot ale and hot milk. Sweetened with sugar and flavored with nutmeg or shredded ginger, consumed hot
AlewifeFish that's a member of the shad family
AlfalfaForage plants; the world's most important. Seeds sprout resembling mung beans
Alicante WineRed table wine, sweet and popular in Spain
AllemandeDished garnished in smoked saussage, sauerkraut, potato dumplings or pickled pork; or dishes served with Allemande Sauce
Alligator PearA term for Avocado in the United States
AllspiceA spice having the flavors of nutmeg, cinnamon and cloves combined
AllumettesMeans matchsticks. Im cooking, to cut the sizes of matches with a knife, usually potatoes
AlmondKernel found in the Almond fruit, with sweet and bitter varieties
Almond EssenceFlavoring agent made from extracting oil out of bitter almonds
AlsacienneGarnish made to prepare suerkraut, ham or Strasbourg Sausages
AlsandeThin slender beans prepared with grated coconut and spices
Alsatian WinesWine with a fruit flavor
Aluminium FoilA sheet of aluminium used in food handling
Amanida CatalanLettuce, tomatoes, carrots, onions and peppers tossed into a salad; topped with eggs, anchovies, tuna or charcuteria
AmaranthProtein nourished weed. The greens have a sweet flavor, and the seeds can be used as cereal, or ground into flour for bread
AmaranthsA kind of grain, a multipurpose nutrition filled leafy crop. Its seeds are called Rajgara. Popular in western-northern India.
AmarettiBittersweet cookies - prepared with equal amount of bitter almonds and regular almonds.
AmarettiBittersweet cookies - made with the same amounts of bitter almonds and regular almonds.
AmbalIt is a sour dish made with fish or vegetables. Tamarind is added to it to lend it sourness. Ambal is mostly made during summers and is meant to be eaten towards the end of the meal before the dessert.
AmbalIt is a sour pumpkin dish made with fish or vegetables, tossed with tamarind, jaggery, cumin seeds.
AmberjackLean fish found in the South Atlantic, with mild flavour
AmbrosiaA love ddessert in Southern America. Mainly consists of thin slices of orange, sprinkled with coconut shreds and sugar
American BuffaloRaised on game farms. Tender meat and a taste similar to that of lean beef
AmlaIndian Gooseberry.
Amontillado (Spanish)A type of Sherry or Montilla.
AmphoraeA long vintage Greek or Roman jug with two handles and a very narrow neck.
Ancho.Wide Chile pepper
AnchovyA smaller member of the herring family; not more than three inches long
AnchovyDescribe species of small, silvery fish
AnchoyadeProvencal dip made from anchovies, oil or wine
Andare a cichetiTo go for snacks accompanied by a glass of red or white wine
Andare a cichetiCommon snacks which usually goes with a glass of red or white wine
Andouille SausageSmoked cajun sausage, made of pork butt, shanks and a small amount of pork fat. Seasoned with salt, cracked black peper and garlic
AndouillettesA coarse sausage made from pig small intestines
Angel CakeA North American cake, with a light and airy texture
AngelicaA herb found in the Alps. The leaves can be used as flavoring stewed fruit; and the oil extracted from the seeds and roots are used in flavoring liqeur and wine
AnglaisIn the style of the English
Angler FishLarge fish with a firm texture. This salt water fish has a low fat content and a mild, sweet flavor that resembles that of a lobster. Also known as the Monkfish, or the goose-fish
AngosturaAn aromatic, bitter bark of a small tree found in South America. Used in medicines and beverages
AngusA breed of cow
AnimelleAn aromatic, bitter bark of a small tree found in South America. Used in medicines and beverages
AnisetteA fairly sweet clear liqeur, made from anise seeds
Anna PotatoesIt is a classic French dish of sliced, layered potatoes cooked in a very large amount of melted butter.
AnnaprasannaA celebratory function at which a child who turned 6 months old is given solid food in an auspicious day.
AnpanA sweet roll commonly found in Japan. Prepared containing a variety of fillings, like white beans, sesame and chestnut; with red bean paste being the most widespread.
AntelopeA large animal of the deer family, found in Asia, Africa nad Europe. The meat is known as 'Venison'
AntojitosCorn dishes mostly referred to as tacos and so on.
AOCApellation d'Origine Controlee
Anec amb figuesDuck roasted in the oven, with figs
Anec amb peresDuck with pears
AperitifFrenchl a drink taken before meals, considered an appetite stimulant
ApfelbettelmannA South German apple pudding
ApfelkuchenA Bavarian apple tart; with an unusual concoction of apples. rum, egg and cream
ApfelstrudelDelicious, flaky, apple puff pastry
AppamSimilar to dosa, but made with rice flour and toddy, these take the shape of the curved bowl-like pan in which they are prepared.
AppamFerment rice flour poured in a bowl shaped utensil to form thin pancakes in the shape. Carries a neutral taste, goes well with spicy condiments, chutneys or curries.
AppamA soft pan cake with a fat and spongy center, with thinner sides, made from batter of rice.
AppamSimilar to dosa, but made with rice flour and toddy, these are shaped like a curved bowl and are puffier in the middle.
AppamShallow fried pan cake in a particular, small, molded frying vessel
AppareilA synonym for mixture; used to mention the preparations involved in the making of a dish
AppenzellDelicately flavored, full fat cheese. Named after the Swiss canton of Appenzell
Appetizer or Hors d'oeuvreAppetizers are small savory tidbits hot or cold, meant as a starter
Apple corerA tool that removes the core and pips of an apple while leaving the apple whole.
Apple corerLeaving the apple whole, the Apple corer removes only the core and the pips.
Apple/Cherry woodSlightly sweet wood, fruity smoke that's mild enough for chicken or turkey and can flavouring ham
AppleformarScandinavian pies filled with apple, apricot jam and almond slivers
ApupaDeep fried rice four pancake soaked in jaggery, sugar and tossed with cardamom. Malpua is a variation of apupa, with eggs and mawa.
AquavitScandinavian liquor made from potatoes, or grain; and caraway seeds. The many varieties come from colorless to a light orange, and flavord with numerous herbs and spices
AranygaluskaScandinavian liquor made from potatoes, or grain; and caraway seeds. The many varieties come from colorless to a light orange, and flavord with numerous herbs and spices
Arborio RiceLarge unhulled rice - used to make Risotto.
Arborio RiceIt is a variety of short-grained rice used primarily in the classical preparation of risotto.
Arborio RiceItalian rice from which risotto is made; a combination of hot stock, rice and chopped onions sauteed in butter
ArchbishopA winter drink, often a hot sherry or wine punch
Areca NutAlso called the Betel Nut, the fruit of the areca palm. The red/orange shell is broken to reveal the actual nut, which is a light brown outside a white flesh
ArepaGround corn dough or cooked corn flour cooked to resemble the Mesoamerican tortilla and Salvadoran pupusa.
ArharAlso known as Pigeon pea, it is a kind of protein filled legume.
ArishtaA form of medicated alcohol, used in injury case.
ArmagnacWine made from the sandy soil of vineyards, made in one process. Aged in barrels made with Black Gascony Oak that is vital in carrying the distinctive flavour
ArmoricaineA variety of the Brittany Oyster
Arni PsitoRoasted lamb legs. A Greek Delicacy that has a distinct aroma
AroidsIt's a root vegetable. Arbi is a type of Aroids.
AromaUsed to describe a fragrance
ArrackClear distilled spirits made from toddy
ArrackA harsh and strong spirit, made by distilling widely available, cheap staples; like fermented rice, dates, grapes or grain
Arros a bandaTypically a dish of rice and scorpion fish, topped with allioli oven-baked
Arros negreStuffed squid, served with rice that has been cooked in the cephaloppod ink. Results in the aptly named Black Rice
ArrowheadA Chinese water plant with starchy roots which can be thinly sliced and fried; and added to Chinese dishes
ArrowrootA pure form of starch, obtained from the root of a plant in the tropics. It is processed by sun-drying, and grinding it to a fine powder. A thickening agent
Arroz empedradoA dish of rice with tomatoes and cod fish, with a layer of white beans over it
Artic BonitoSmall tuna fish with a light colored meat
ArtichokeUsed to name three plants that are not related; the globe, Jersusalem and Chinese artichokes
Artichoke HeartTender center of the globe artichoke
ArugulaKnown as Rocket lettuce, it is pungent smelling plant whose leaves are eaten as a salad.
ArugulaA herb used in Salads, from the plant of the mustard family. Carries a strong smell and a sharp peppery flavour. The oil extracted has medicinal properties. Also called the rocket, roquette, rocket salad, or rugola
ArugulaThis slightly bitter, aromatic salad green (also called "rocket," "Rugula," and "Rucolo") has a peppery mustard flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves
AsadorA restaurant that specializes in roasted meats
AsafoetidaIt is the dried latex projected from the tap root of a 1.5 m tall perennial herb. Commonly used in Asian cooking for flavouring
AsavaFlavored distilled liquor having medical connotation.
Asbestos MatAsbestos, a grey fiber, is processed into mats. Useful in cooking because of its non-combustible character. Often placed under a saucepan where minimum heat is required, as it reflects heat
Ash BerryA fruit of the mountain ash, a berry of bright red color
Ashe ReshteNoodle soup originated from Persia
AsparagusFrom the lily family. green with purple-tinged tips
Asparagus BeanA thin legume from the black-eye-pea family. Looks like a cery long bean. Picked at around eighteen inches of size, but can grow to a yard long. Not as sweet or crispy as the green bean
Asparagus PeaPods with green wings, consumed when they're in lengths between one and three inches
AspartameA substitute for sugar, that is almost twoo hundred times sweeter than sugar. Synthesizde from amino acids, that breaks down and loses sweetness on heating
AspicClear jelly made from concentrate liquid that has had meat, poultry or fish cooked earlier. The stock carries a strong gelatinous matter, which nulls the requirement for additional gelatin
Assiette AnglaiseA culinary term used to describe an assortment of cold meat served on a plate. Included in most cases are a slice of York ham, a slice of beef tongue, roast beef, and sometimes galantine and brawn
Asti SpumanteItalian sparkling wine. Made from Muscat grapes, found in the vineyards of Asti and neighbouring areas
AsynpoedingSouth African vinegar pudding, an unusual ginger flavoured dessert baked with vinegar flavoured syrup
AtaarA seasoning, blend of thyme, sesame seeds, and other spices.
Athol BroseA Scottish drink made by steeping oatmeal in boiling water, straine, and adding it to whisky, cream and honey
Au BeurreWith butter
Au BlancA french cooking method resulting in white food, made of salted water, lemon juice and flour
Au BranServed and/or cooked with a brown sauce
Au FourIn the Oven
Au GrasCooked in rich meat gravy or stock
Au GratinCovered in a sauce, with breadcrumbs or grated cheese sprinkled; baked to a golden brown
Au GratinFood topped with greated cheese or breadcumbs mixed with butter, and then broiled to a golden brown
Au JusMeat served with its natural juices or gravy
Au JusMeat served in its own natural juices
Au LaitCooked and/or served with milk
Au MaigreWithout meat or meat stock
Au NaturelPlainly or naturally cooked food
Au rougeServed or finished in a red sauce
Au vertServed or finished with green sauce
AufschnittA german term for a variety of sausages and other meats found in German delicatessen shops
AugolemonoAlternative to Avgolemono soup
AvalPressed rice
AvgolemonoAn egg and lemon mixture used as a sauce or a soup base.
AvgolemonoEgg and lemon mixture used as a sauce or a soup base.
Avgolemono soupA Greek traditional egg and lemon soup
AviyalA variety of vegetables such as green bananas, drumsticks, white pumpkin, yam, beans mixed in yoghurt curry
AvocadoPulpy fruit with a hard center.
AwaA Hawaiian beverage that is bitter ang grey-brown. Promises to evoke the 'ona'; which means "euphoric, relaxed with heightened awareness."
AwaFish from the Indo-Pacific region with a tender, white fish
AzaroleFrom the hawthorne family. The fruit of the azarole tree aids in making preserves and liquer flavors. The fruit looks like a hawthorne, but slightly larger in size. The flesh usually orange-yellow or reddish in colour and has an apple-y flavour
Azerbaijan pilaffA rice dish mildly flavored with sesame seeds and ginger
BaadiA kind of bread made from Kwadakaatta (also known as Mandua flour and is black in color). It is best served with Gahatkidal.s
BaadiA form of bread made from Kwadakaatta (also known as Mandua flour and is black in color). It tastes best when served with Gahatkidal.s
BaadiA sort of bread made from Kwada ka atta (also known as Mandua flour and is black in color).
BabaA cake with a rich and light texture. Invented by a Polish King in 1704, named it after Ali Baba from 'The Thousand and One Nights' after pouring rum on a dry yeast cake. Rose to popularity in Paris by the nineteenth century, commonly known as Baba. Made with flour, yeast, butter, and eggs in round moulds of different sizes, and soaked in rum or kirsch flavored syrup.
Baba A super spongy cake soaked in syrup, filled with whipped cream and topped with fresh/dried fruits. The classic French Rum Baba is saturated with hard liquor syrup, usually rum, and then filled with whipped cream.
Baba GhanoushA Levantine appetizer of mashed cooked eggplant mixed with tahini, olive oil, possibly lemon juice, and various seasonings.
BabacoOriginated from Ecuador - an edible skin that turns to a golden yellow from green on ripening.
BabaganoujEggplant, garlic, parsley blended with olive oil and lemon juice
BacalhauA dish made from Salt Cod, home to Portuguese Culture.
Bacalou (Spanish)Codfish, salted or otherwise.
Baccala MantecataCreamed and dried cod with olive oil, parsley and garlic (a real favorite)
Baccala mantecataCreamed dried cod garnished with olive oil, parsley and garlic (a real favorite)
Baccala mantecataCreamed dried cod with olive oil, parsley and garlic (a real favorite)
BaconMeat taken from the back and sides of a pig, that is smoked and cured. The fat adds a sweet flavor and a tender crips, accounts to almost two-thirds of the total weight.
BagelA chewy ring shaped bread, often topped with sesame or poppy seeds.
BaghaTossing together spices or masala one by one in fat before adding the main ingredients.
Baghali PoloA rice dish consisting of Lamb and dill, seasoned with aromatic spices.
Bagna CaudaA bain-marie (ban mah- ree) is a large, shallow pan half-filled with hot water in which smaller pans containing food items which cannot be reheated on direct heat are put to keep hot until required. This may be heated through gas or electric power
Bagna CaudaA bain-marie (ban mah- ree) is a large, shallow pan half-filled with hot water in which smaller pans containing food items which cannot be reheated on direct heat are put to keep hot until required. This may be heated through gas or electric power
BaguetteAn elongated loaf of bread, made with water, flour, yeast and salt.
Bain-MarieA double boiler, often used to keep smaller pans with food that cannot be reheated on direct heat to be kept warm until served.
Bain-marieNamed after the Virgin Mary, because of the gentleness.
Bain-MarieA double boiler, often used to keep smaller pans with food that cannot be reheated on direct heat to be kept warm until served.
BajetA species of oyster whose flesh is not very delicate
BakeTo cook by dry heat in the oven or on in a hot closed surface.
Baked BeansProcessedTinned haricot beans, normally in a tomato sauce.
Baking PowderPrimarily sodium bicarbonate, or sodium acid carbonate. The powder also contains an acid like salt crystals that dissolve in water.
Baking SodaUsed in baking, and mixed with an acidic ingredient like yoghurt or molasses. An acid and base chemical reaction produces Carbon Dioxide as bubbles, making the dough rise.
BaklavaMade of layers of phyllo pastry, chopped nuts, and a honey-flavored syrup
BaklavaLayers of phyllo pastry, chopped nuts, and a honey-flavored syrup
BaklavaSweet layers of pastry, chopped nuts, and a honey-flavored syrup
BakudaikaiLarge nut produced in Sichuan in China
BalachanAn Eastern seasoning made from ground shrimps and salt, then sun dried.
Balaou (French.)A small fish similar to sardines.
Balep korkumFlat bread made with barley flour, water and baking powder. Cooked in a frying pan.
BallotineA boneless leg of poultry that is stuffed.
BallotineA dish made by stuffing forcemeat into a boneless leg of poultry.
Balmain BugA variety of lobster found in Australia.
BalMithaiA brown coloured sweet made from khoya or condensed milk and is covered entirely with sugar balls. It has a sticky texture and is yummy to taste.
BalMithaiA brown coloured sweet made from khoya or condensed milk. It has a sticky texture and is covered entirely with sugar balls
BalMithaiBrown sweet made from khoya or condensed milk, covered with sugar.
Balsam PearAlso known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, a fruit of a tropical climber found in African and Asian continents.
Balsamic VinegarItalian vinegar derived from White Trebbiano grapes, after aging for several years.
Bamboo broomA short broom of bamboo sticks which are tightly packed and tied together.
Used in Chinese kitchen to scrape out food particles attached to a wok.
Bamboo broomA short broom of bamboo sticks, tightly packed and tied.
Helps to scrape out food particles attached to a wok.
Bamboo broomBamboo sticks formed into a short broom, tightly packed and tied. It's commonly used in Chinese kitchens to scrape out food particles in a wok
Bamboo broomA short broom of bamboo sticks, tightly packed and tied.
Helps to scrape out food particles attached to a wok.
Bamboo steameMade of interlocking strips of bamboo with perforated bottoms that fit on top of one another. The whole basket is placed over a pot of simmering water where the steam rises through the perforations and cooks the food.
Bamboo steameMade of interlocking strips of bamboo with perforated bottoms that fit on top of one another. The whole basket is placed over a pot of simmering water where the steam rises through the perforations and cooks the food.
Bamboo steamerInterlocking bamboo strips fit on top of another with perforated bottoms. The whole apparatus is kept over a pot of simmering water, and cooks food with the steam that passes through the perforations
BammyCassanova root and salt fried in coconut oil. Dipped again in coconut milk after a short while and refried.
Banana breadMashed banana folded into bread.
BannetonCoiled read or willow basket available in round, oval or rectangular shapes.
BannetonCoiled willow basket in round, oval or rectangular shapes.
BannockA flat quickbread made with sodium bicarbonate, which aids to its light and airy texture.
BannocksLarge, round cakes or scones, made from oatmeal, wheat or barley. Origin - Scotland.
BannocksLarge, round cakes or scones, made from oatmeal, wheat or barley. Origin - Scotland.
BanyulsRed, rose or white French; sweet, dessert wine.
BanyulsRed, rose or white French; sweet, dessert wine.
BapsSoft cottish breakfast rolls made from flour, milk, sugar, yeast and butter.
Bara BirthBread containing raisins, currants and candied peel.
BaraccudaA type of fish with a rigid texture and moderate fat. Resembling a pike, with long pointy jaws and sharp teeth.
BaraccudaA type of fish with a rigid texture and moderate fat. Resembling a pike, with long pointy jaws and sharp teeth.
Barbados cherryAlso called Acerola or Puerto Rican Cherry. A fruit obtained from a small tree in the West Indies and adjacent areas. Rich in vitamin C.
Barbari breadPersian flatbread of Iranian origin.
BarbecueTo cook in dry heat over a charcoal or wood fire
Barbecue SauceSauces used to marinate or over grilled meat, commonly made with tomatoes, onions, garlic, mustard, brown sugar, vinegar and beer.
BarbelCarp family river fish, named after its physical traits - fleshy filaments that hang from its mouth, resembling a barbel.
BarbelCarp family river fish, named after its physical traits - fleshy filaments that hang from its mouth, resembling a barbel.
BarberryBerries from the berberis plant.
BardPlacing slices of bacon or pork over the breast of poultry, to sustain moisture and flavor while cooking.
BarleyHardy grain, used in cereals, breads, and soups.
BarleyHardy grain, used in cereals, breads, and soups.
Barm BrackAn everyday fruit loaf made with yeast. Irish tradition.
Barm BrackAn everyday fruit loaf made with yeast. Irish tradition.
BarmbrackSweeter bread containing sultanas and raisins.
BarquettesOval or bat shaped french pastry shells, with choice of filling inside.
BarracoutaLarge salt water fish with rough scales.
BarsacA sweet white wine, made from a sub-are called Sauternes in Bordeaux.
BasilHerb used for seasoning with a pungent flavor.
BasilHerb used for seasoning with a pungent flavor.
BasmatiA slender, thin type of rice
BassFamily of fish, that are voracious sea and river fish, with fins that resemble spines.
BassFamily of fish, that are voracious sea and river fish, with fins that resemble spines.
BasteApplying fat to the meat in the over, thereby preventing over-dryness.
BasteApplying fat to the meat in the over, thereby preventing over-dryness.
BastoneSimilar to the French baguette, but shorter and thicker. Sesame seeds are used as garnish.
Bath BunsTraditionally originated in the English spa of bath from the 18 th centrury, these buns have an uneven shape topped with a lump of sugar.
Bath BunsTraditionally originated in the English spa of bath from the 18thcentrury, these buns have an uneven shape topped with a lump of sugar.
Bath ChapSimilar to bacon, the lower half of a pig ' s chap and commonly consumed cold.
Bath ChapSimilar to bacon, the lower half of a pig's chap and commonly consumed cold.
BatilgianArmenian word for eggplant
BatilgianAn Armenian word for eggplant
Battenburg cakeA dual colored sponge cake in a checkerboard pattern, usually iced with almond paste.
BatterUsed as a coating for foods, a combination of flour, liquid and other ingredients.
BatterTo stir or beat a mixture of dry ingredients and liquid.
Baume' Thermometer:Measures density of various liquids. One scale measures the density of liquids heavier than water and the other, liquids lighter than water
Bavarian CreamPastry cream made with whipped cream, and gelatin for stablization. Poured into molds, or as filling in baking.
Bavarian CreamPastry cream made with whipped cream, and gelatin for stablization. Poured into molds, or as filling in baking.
BavaroisSoft egg custard combined with gelatin, flavoring and whip cream.
BazlamaFlat and round beer bread.
Bean CurdSoya beans that have been cooked, pureed and pressed; cut into 3 inch square cakes that are half an inch thick.
Bean SproutsTender sprouts of germinated beans.
Bean ThreadsA variation of Chinese or Glass noodles. Translucent in nature, made from mung bean starch. Also known as Cellophane Noodles.
BeansSeeded pods of legumes.
BeansSeeded pods of legumes.
BearA large quadruped primarily found in the west, and the Artic. Bear meet is cooked similar to beef.
Bear -Claw cultesA named cutler with multiple blades it is used to cut slice for bear-claw pastries
Bearnaise SauceClassic French sauce made with a reduction of vinegar, wine, tarragon and shallots and finished with egg yolks and butter.
BeatTo introduce air into a mixture to make it fluffier.
Bechamel SauceLight white sauces. White sauce is a mixture of milk or cream with a white roux, for example.
BeechnutFruit of the beech tree, triangular in shape. Carries flavors crossing a hazelnut and a chestnut.
BeefMeet from cows and bulls under two years old.
BeefMeet from cows and bulls under two years old.
Beef tartareCoarsely ground beef that is seasoned. Commonly served with a raw egg placed on top with herbs.
Beef TeaSlow simmering beef, thereby extracting an essence.
BeefaloA cross with the buffalo and cattle, with the beef strain being stronger. Comparitively leaner than beef and the dark red meat has a stronger flavor.
BeefaloA cross with the buffalo and cattle, with the beef strain being stronger. Comparitively leaner than beef and the dark red meat has a stronger flavor.
BeerAn alcoholic beverage that is brewed from malted marley and cereals mixed with yeast. Hops are used as flavorings, retaining its low alcohoic content.
BeerwurstGerman cooked sausage with a garlic flavor.
BeetA firm, round-rooted vegetable with nutritious leafy greens.
BeetA firm, round-rooted vegetable with nutritious leafy greens.
Beignets (French)Fritters
Beignets (French)Fritters
BEIJING BLAST (Chinese)A salt free mix of black and white sesame seeds, green and pink peppercorns; poppy seeds and hot chillies.
BEIJING BLAST (Chinese)A salt free mix of black and white sesame seeds, green and pink peppercorns; poppy seeds and hot chillies.
Bell PepperShaped like a bell, a mild and sweet pepper. Crips and juicy in nature, found in yellow, green, red, orange, purple and brown colors.
Belle HeleneDessert made from ice cream, chocolate sauce and poached pear. Also a term for garnishing grilled meat in French cookery.
Belly-FishLow fat salt water fish. Large in size, has a sweet, mild flavor similar to that of a lobster.
BelugaA type of caviar, typically light gray to dark gray and mild and buttery.
BenedictineVarious aromatics like fruit peels and herbs added to a cognac. Named after Benedictine monks who invented it in the 16 th Century.
BenedictineVarious aromatics like fruit peels and herbs added to a cognac. Named after Benedictine monks who invented it in the 16thCentury.
BerHigh sugar content fruits of zizypus species
BerbereHot sauce of Ethiopia.
BerbereEthiopia's hot sauce
BerbereEthiopia's hot sauce
Betel leafA digestive leaf, filled with medical benefits, eaten after food in India.
Beurre BlancA creamy emulsion made from butter flavoring as a butter sauce.
Beurre BlancA creamy emulsion made from butter flavoring as a butter sauce.
Beurre Manie"Kneaded butter." ; Mixing flour and butter in equal parts, commonly used to thicken gravies and sauces.
Beurre Manie"Kneaded butter." ; Mixing flour and butter in equal parts, commonly used to thicken gravies and sauces.
Beurre Noisette"Hazelnut butter" or "brown butter." Whole butter that has been heated until browned.
Beurre Noisette"Hazelnut butter" or "brown butter." Whole butter that has been heated until browned.
BhajaMethod of coating anything be it vegetable, fish or meat in a batter of gram flour or besan and deep fried in mustard oil.
BhajaA coating of gram flour or besan applied to anything be it vegetable, fish or meat and deep fried in mustard oil.
BhajaMethod of coating any food in a batter of gram flour or besan and deep fried in mustard oil.
BhakriCereals and fiber like sorghum, millet or maize mixed to make this round flatbread, typically grayish in color,
BhangLeaf of Cannabis saliva, whose dried flower is called 'Ganja'.
BhapTerm used for cooking using steam or simply the technique of steaming the food.
BhapCooking using steam or simply the technique of steaming the food.
BhapCooking using steam or the technique of steaming the food.
BhapCooking using steam or simply the technique of steaming the food.
BhartaIt is a method used to cook vegetables like potato, brinjal, pumpkin, beans. In this the vegetable is first boiled and mashed finely and then seasoned with spices and mustard oil.
BhartaA method used to cook vegetables like potato, brinjal, pumpkin, beans by first boiling, mashing and later seasoning with spices and mustard oil.
BhartaMethod of boiling and mashing the vegetable finely, and then season with spices and mustard oil.
BhartaA method used to cook vegetables like potato, brinjal, pumpkin, beans by first boiling, mashing and later seasoning with spices and mustard oil.
BHCBranch hygiene Code
BhunaA term used for grilling something be it vegetable or meat, covered with whole spices, on high heat.
BhunaA term used for grilling vegetables or meat, covered with whole spices, on high heat.
BhunaGrilling food, be it vegetable or meat, covered with whole spices, on high heat.
Bib LettuceButter head lettuce, having loose white-green leaves; with a mild flavor.
Bib LettuceButter head lettuce, having loose white-green leaves; with a mild flavor.
Bikini (Spanish)A kind of toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
Bikini (Spanish)A kind of toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
BindTo hold food together by adding an ingredient
BingComparatively thicker than a Mexican tortilla, usually cooked in a griddle.
Birds Nest (Chinese)Literally a Bird's nest, made of regorged spittle of a certain breed of swallow.
Birds Nest (Chinese)Literally a Bird's nest, made of regorged spittle of a certain breed of swallow.
BirinjPersian name of rice preparation.
BiryaniSpiced and flavoured rice cooked with masala and meat or chicken or vegetable or seafood.
Bisbalenc (Spanish)Puff pastry shaped like a barrel, with a sweet zucchini filling topped with pine nuts.
BisqueA thick cream soup or puree made from shellfish.
BisqueA thick cream soup or puree made from shellfish.
Bitter MelonA fruit of a tropical climber found in African and Asian continents. It is similar to a cucumber and is used as a vegetable. Also called "Balsam pear" or "bitter gourd."
BiznagaCandid cactus.
Black and Red riceRare Asian grains with black or red husk and bran coverings.
Black BeansAlso known as turtle beans, cream colored sweet flesh with black skin.
Black BeansAlso known as turtle beans, cream colored sweet flesh with black skin.
Black Bottom PieA pie with a filling of dark chocolate custard, and a meringue vanilla rum flavored custard layer; topped with whipped cream and chocolate shavings.
Black breadMade from grain of rye, has a high fibre content. Dark in color and varies from crispy to dense and chewy in the mouth
Black Bun (Scottish)Fruit cake with raisins, currants, finely chopped peel, almonds, ginger and brown sugar, with cinnamon added to it.
Black CodSaltwater fish with high fat and a mild flavor. Not a true cod.
Black CodSaltwater fish with high fat and a mild flavor. Not a true cod.
Black Forest CakeA three layer genoise sponge cake, soaked with Kirsch; filled with whipped cream and cherries.
Black PuddingCommonly known as ' blood sausage ' . Cooked links of large sausage, primarily made of pig ' s blood, suet, oatmeal and/or bread crumbs.
Black PuddingCommonly known as 'blood sausage'. Cooked links of large sausage, primarily made of pig's blood, suet, oatmeal and/or bread crumbs.
Black RaddishBlack coloured radish from the plants grown chiefly for their pungent peppery root.
Black SalsifyPopularly known as Scorzonera, a black skinned version of salsify. Most commonly greyish or a pale gold in color.
Black SalsifyPopularly known as Scorzonera, a black skinned version of salsify. Most commonly greyish or a pale gold in color.
Black Turtle BeansAlso known as "turtle beans," cream colored sweet flesh with black skin. Its sweet flavor forms the base for black bean soup.
Black Turtle BeansAlso known as "turtle beans," cream colored sweet flesh with black skin. Its sweet flavor forms the base for black bean soup.
Black WalnutA highly fat walnut black in colour
BlackberryLargest of wild berries, up to one inch long when fully mature.
Black-Eyed PeansBeige colored beans with a round black ' eye ' located along the inner curve.
Black-Eyed PeansBeige colored beans with a round black 'eye' located along the inner curve.
BlackfishA lean, delicately flavoured sea fish.
BlackfishA lean, delicately flavoured sea fish.
BlackjackSlang for gravy browning, often made by caramelizing sugar.
BlanchTo dip food temporarily in boiling water, and then to cold to halt the cooking process.
BlanchTo dip food temporarily in boiling water, and then to cold to halt the cooking process.
BlanchTo cook partially and briefly in hot water or hot oil
BlanchTo put into boiling water, either to remove skin or to whiten.
Blanco/WhiteClassic light wine, with shades turning from yellow to gree or golden hues.
Blanco/WhiteClassic light wine, with shades turning from yellow to gree or golden hues.
BlanquetteWhite stew Ragout made from lamb, veal, or chicken with a rich veloute sauce.
BleachWhitening through chemicals or sun's rays.
Blendto mix thoroughly, with speed or tools not of essence.
BlendTo mix two or more ingredients thoroughly
Blendto mix thoroughly, with speed or tools not of essence.
BlendCombining all ingredients thoroughly until smooth
BlintzA thin pancake, resembling a crepe. Rolled up add fillings of sweet or savory tastes; commonly ricotta, fruits or meat.
BlintzA thin pancake, resembling a crepe. Rolled up add fillings of sweet or savory tastes; commonly ricotta, fruits or meat.
BloaterSalted and lightly smoked herring.
Blood SausageAlso known as "blood pudding". Cooked links of large sausage, primarily made of pig ' s blood, suet, oatmeal and/or bread crumbs. It is generally sold precooked.
Blood SausageAlso known as "blood pudding". Cooked links of large sausage, primarily made of pig's blood, suet, oatmeal and/or bread crumbs. It is generally sold precooked.
Bloody MaryA cocktail drink containing vodka, lemon juice, Worcestershire sauce and Tobasco, along with Pepper and V8, with tomato or cocktail juice.
Blue CrabCrab with blue claws and a dark blue-green shell.
Blue PointSmall-size oyster.
BlueberryBlue-black berries, smooth skinned and round. Juicy and sweet in taste.
Bluefin TunaOne of the largest varieties of tuna, weighing over a thousand pounds. Flesh turns to dark red with a stronger flavor on ageing.
BluefishA fine textured fish that is fatty. Also known as ' bulldog of the ocean ' .
BluefishA fine textured fish that is fatty. Also known as 'bulldog of the ocean'.
BluegillNorth American freshwater fish. Famous for their bright colors, related to the perch family.
BobwhiteFrom the partridge family, a small game bird. Resembles a small, plump chicken in appearance. White, delicate flesh.
Bocconcini (Italy)Means ' a mouthful ' . Small nuggets of mozzarella.
Bocconcini (Italy)Means 'a mouthful'. Small nuggets of mozzarella.
BockwurstGround veal sausage seasoned with minced parsley and chives. German origin.
BockwurstGround veal sausage seasoned with minced parsley and chives. German origin.
BofrotRound bread of various sizes made with white flour.
BoilTo cook bubbling hot liquid
Bok ChoyThick veined, crinkly leaves that are thin and delicately mild.
Bok ChoyThick veined, crinkly leaves that are thin and delicately mild.
BokkaFilled with fruit or chocolate stuffing, and glazed with fruit flavored icing.
BolaniPotatoes, lentils, pumpkin and/or other ingredients stuffed in a thin crust bread.
BoletusWild mushrooms, commonly known for their fine taste and meaty texture.
BoletusWild mushrooms, commonly known for their fine taste and meaty texture.
BolillosMexican bread rolls.
Bollito MistoVarious cuts of meat added to an Italian stew. Most commonly consisting of zampone, boiled in a broth rich with vegetables.
BolognaIntensely seasoned sausage named after the Italian city of Bologna. Also called baloney.
BolognaiseUsed to term various dished originated from the Bologna region of Italy. Bolognaise sauce is a thick tomato base sauce with various vegetables and meat.
BolognaiseItalian meat sauce
BologneseMeat sauce with tomatoes.
BombeAn ice cream dessert comprising of various kinds of ice cream or sherbet, made to freeze in a bomb shaped mould.
BonitoA variety of tuna, the smallest in its kind. Moderately fatty, occasionally weighing upwards of 25 pounds. Most flavorful of the tunas.
Bonne FemmeDishes made to a simple home or family style.
BoraMade combining cornmeal and either wheat or rye flour, with yeast as a leavening agent.
BorageHerb that has a flavour closely similar to that of a cucumber. Both the flowers and leaves can be used in salads. The leaves are also used to flavour teas and vegetables.
BorecoleAlso called Kale, this is a member of the cabbage family.
BorodinskyMade with rye flour
Borsch (Russian)Beet soup, commonly known as borscht. Made with beets, vegetables and meats.
BorschtBeet soup, commonly known as borsch. Made with beets, vegetables and meats.
BorschtBeet soup, commonly known as borsch. Made with beets, vegetables and meats.
Boston lettuce:commonly known as butter lettuce. Loosely fit leaves make the head with a sweet, light flavor with a fragile texture.
Boston lettuce:commonly known as butter lettuce. Loosely fit leaves make the head with a sweet, light flavor with a fragile texture.
BOTBar order Ticket
Bottle GourdHard-shelled gourd, also known as "white-flowered gourd" and "Calabash gourd."
BoucheesA smaller rendition of Vol-au-vent case pastries.
BoucheesA smaller rendition of Vol-au-vent case pastries.
BoudinSausages of two types that are smooth in texture; Blanc and Noir. Blanc is made of veal, pork and chicken, whereas Noir is made with blood and rice, or potatoes.
Boudin NoirBlood sausage, or black pudding
Boudin NoirBlood sausage, or black pudding
BouillabaisseA French fish stew.
BouillabaisseOriginated from Souther France, a rich fish stew.
BouillabaisseA French fish stew.
BouillabaisseOriginated from Souther France, a rich fish stew.
BouillonLiquor primarily used to cook meat, chicken or fish, with mirepoix or aromatic herbs kept on simmer.
BouillonLiquor primarily used to cook meat, chicken or fish, with mirepoix or aromatic herbs kept on simmer.
BouleResembles a squash ball, has a rustic load shape and is made with any type of flour.
Bouquet Garnia mixture of bay leaves, celery, parsley and thyme, used as a flavoring aid to any cooking liqeur.
Bouquet garniA bunch of herbs that are tied together, used to enhance the flavor of soups or stews.
Bouquet garniA bunch of herbs that are tied together, used to enhance the flavor of soups or stews.
BourbonNamed after the Bourbon county in Kentucky. Distilled from a mash of a minimum of 51% corn.
BourbonNamed after the Bourbon county in Kentucky. Distilled from a mash of a minimum of 51% corn.
BourekakiaFilo puffs made with various fillings
BourekakiaFilo puffs made with various fillings
BourgeoiseMeats served with vegetables
BourgeoiseMeats served with vegetables
BourikasSavory pastries, made of Freek filo pastry rolls, made of Greek filo pastry rolls.
BourrideFish stew originated from southern France. The broth, consists of large pieces of poached fish, strained and thickened. Served in shallow bowls with bread or croutons.
BoysenberryA cross between a raspberry, blackberry, and a loganberry. Shaped like a large raspberry, with a rich sweet-tart flavour.
BraiseA method of cooking wherein meat or vegetables are first sauteed in fat or oil, and then kept in a covered pot to simmer with a small amount of cooking liquid for long periods of time.
BraiseTo cook in its own liquor or small quantity of liquid, with or without browning
BraisiereBraising pan.
BraisiereBraising pan.
BrambleAlso known as blueberry, the largest of wild berries.
BranThe outer shell of grains like wheat or oats. Good source of carbs, calcium and fiber, phosphorus.
BranThe outer shell of grains like wheat or oats. Good source of carbs, calcium and fiber, phosphorus.
Brandada (Spanish)technique of cod preparing cod with garlic and olive oil.
BrandadeSalt cod, olive oil and potatoes; pureed.
BrandadeSalt cod, olive oil and potatoes; pureed.
BrandyFermented fruit juice aged in oaks, distilled into liquor.
BrandyFermented fruit juice aged in oaks, distilled into liquor.
Brandy SnapTube like baked casings made with flavours like brandy, molasses and spices and filled with various creams.
Brandy SnapTube like baked casings made with flavours like brandy, molasses and spices and filled with various creams.
BratwurstPork and veal seasoned with ginger nutmeg and coriander, made into a German sausage.
BratwurstPork and veal seasoned with ginger nutmeg and coriander, made into a German sausage.
BraunschweigerA German liver sausage that is smoked, with eggs and milk added.
Brazil nutFound in a giant tree in the Amazon jungle as a seed. Has a white, rich kernel high in fat. Commonly known as butternut, cream nut or paranut.
BreadStaple, made from a dough made of flour, water and dough; fermented, knead, and baked in the oven.
Bread knifeA bread knife is a straight long and slender knife which has a serrated blade. The serrated edge ensures that the airiness in bread, cakes and sandwiches is retained and not pressed while slicing.
Bread knifeA straight long and slender knife with a serrated blade, which ensures that the airiness in bread, cakes and sandwiches is retained while slicing.
Bread KnifeA long and thin knife with a textured blade. The serration ensures that when slicing, the air in the bread is retained, and not pressed and escaped
Bread RollShort, oval breads served with butter as an appetizer to or along with a meal.
BreadfruitA fruit that is up to five inches in radius. Bumpy green skin with a bland cream-colored nucleus.
BreadfruitA fruit that is up to five inches in radius. Bumpy green skin with a bland cream-colored nucleus.
BreadingTo cover the food to be breaded in flour, and then in beaten egg, and then finally in bread crumbs.
Breadnut Tree SeedsMulberry tree seeds, grown in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies. Boiled, ground into flour and made as bread.
BreadstickThin long sticks of dry bread.
Bresaoladried fillet of beef
BresaolaItaly's cured and dried beef filet, with more delicate texture and stronger flavor than prosciutto.
BresaolaItaly's cured and dried beef filet, with more delicate texture and stronger flavor than prosciutto.
BrestoisCakes of genoise sponge mixed with almonds, lemon and orange zest baked in a brioche mould filled with apricot jelly, coated with apricot glaze and roasted flaked almonds.
BrestoisCakes of genoise sponge mixed with almonds, lemon and orange zest baked in a brioche mould filled with apricot jelly, coated with apricot glaze and roasted flaked almonds.
BriocheYeast bun shaped like a small cottage load, in a charlotte mould as breakfast rolls.
BriocheBread made of flour, butter and egg.
BriocheYeast bun shaped like a small cottage load, in a charlotte mould as breakfast rolls.
BriouatCylinders of deep fried or baked Phyllo pastry filled with a mixture of ground almonds , cinnamon, sugar, butter and orange flower water. Immerse in warm honey before serving.Brownie: Majorly of chocolate or butterscotch flavour (sometimes with nuts), this is a dense square of baked dessert.
BriouatCylinders of deep fried or baked Phyllo pastry filled with a mixture of ground almonds , cinnamon, sugar, butter and orange flower water. Immerse in warm honey before serving.Brownie: Majorly of chocolate or butterscotch flavour (sometimes with nuts), this is a dense square of baked dessert.
BrissoletteBread crouton hollowed out, and filled with various salpicon.
BrissoletteBread crouton hollowed out, and filled with various salpicon.
Broad BeanFava bean, or horse bean. Looks like a larger lima bean.
Broad BeanFava bean, or horse bean. Looks like a larger lima bean.
BroastingIt is the process of frying food items under pressure.
BroccoliResembles a cauliflower, with deep greens. Comes in tight bunches of small buds on edible stems.
BroccoliResembles a cauliflower, with deep greens. Comes in tight bunches of small buds on edible stems.
BrochetteCubes of meat broiled and served on skewer.
BrochetteCubes of meat broiled and served on skewer.
Brodettodelectable fish soup.
Brodettoscrumptious fish soup.
Brodetto (Italy)Originated from Italy ' s Adriatic coast, a fish soup.
Brodetto (Italy)Originated from Italy's Adriatic coast, a fish soup.
BroilingCooking with dry heat.
Brown BettyAn apple or any fruit compote topped with bread crumbs, brown sugar and cinnamon.
Brown breadMade using a major portion of whole grain flour, normally rye or wheat.
Brown RiceWhole rice grains sans inedible husk.
BrunchBetween breakfast and lunch. The menu combines traditional breakfast items and some shorties from the Lunch menu.
Brune KagerCookies flavored with cinnamon ginger, lemon, cloves, corn syrup, and decorated with almonds.
BrunoiseA fine dice applied to vegetables.
BrunoiseA fine dice applied to vegetables.
Brussels sproutsA mini cabbage.
BrutChampagnes that are ' extra dry '
BrutChampagnes that are 'extra dry'
B'stellaMoroccan appetizer, also known as Pastilla, is a puffy pastry tart stuffed with chicken, seafood, vegetables etc.
BTUBTU refers to the British thermal Unit, the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit
BuissonAs per Buisson, food is arranged in a pyramid format.
BulgarBulgar is a cereal food made from parboiled groats of different wheat species.
BulgerPar cooked wheat, dried and broken.
BulghurCracked Wheat
BullaceA variety of wild Damson Plum.
BurbotA freshwater variety of cod, with long dorsal or tail fins. Prepare as cod.
BurdockA perennial plant whose young shoots and roots are prepared and cooked as salsify.
BurritosBurrito' or Little donkey' is a large 12 inch flour tortilla.
BuryronA leather skin bag holding ghee from south India to Rome in first two centuries
Butter BeansThese large creamy- white or pale green beans have a soft, floury texture and a smooth flavour..
Butyric AcidThe acid produced by oxidation in butter, causing it to become rancid.

Byculla souffleA dessert made with egg white, liqueurs, kummel, green chartreuse, orange curacao
ByronReduced demiglace sauce combined with wine and fine shreds of truffles.
CA MARCHTo let the chefs' know that an order is to follow.
Ca MarcheTo inform the chefs' that an order is to follow.
CABBAGEcomes from the French word caboche, a colloquial term for head. The most common cabbage is the tight leafed compact head that ranges in colour from white to red although there are many other types of cabbage varying in size in shape worth trying.
CabbageA French word caboche, meaning 'head'. Varying shapes and colours, they even come in different sizes.
CabernetVariety of wine grape.
CABERNET-SAUVIGNONA superior red wine made from small, thin-skinned black grapes cultivated in France and California. These are used to produce the fine Clarets of France and the Cabernets of California.
Caboc CheeseA rich, soft, full-cream Scottish cheese, which is very pale, almost pure white on the inside, and is rolled in toasted oatmeal. Best eaten spread on bis- cuits with no butter.
CABREIRO CHEESEMade in Portugal from the mixture of ewe and goat milk. When fresh and young, it is delicate but becomes very sharp and pungent when aged.
CABRINNETI CHEESEDelicate, soft dessert cheese from Denmark.
CABRION CHEESEGoat's milk cheese, made in France, soaked in distilled beverage and ripened between layers of grape skins.
CACCIATOREBlack or green olives, Italian wine, mushrooms cooked with meat or game dishes - basically a hunters dish.
CACCIATOREThe Italian word for'hunter'refers to food prepared'hunter-style', with mushrooms,onions, tomatoes, herbs and sometimes wine. Chicken cacciatore is the most popular.
Cacciatoreblack or green olives, Italian wine, mushrooms cooked with meat or game dishes in a spicy tomato sauce and herbs - basically a hunters dish.
CACCIUCCOItalian seafood stew.
CACHAT CHEESESheep or goat's milk cheese, produced from France. Soft, creamy but with an assertive flavor. Sometimes blended with brandy or wine.
CACIOCAVALLO CHEESEFrom Italy,firm, buttery with a light brown exterior and smoky flavor. Becomes hard when aged. While ripening, it is rubbed with olive oil and butter and hung from rafters.
CAERPHILLY CHEESECreamy white Welsh or English cheese. Mild, delicate, semisoft to semifirm.
CAFE AU LAITCoffee with milk.
CAFE BRULOTA mixture of spiced, strong black coffee, flambed with cognac.
CAFE CON LECHESpanish coffee with milk and sugar.
CAFE SUA DAA Vietnamese iced milk coffee.
CAFFEINEAlkaloid substance found in tea and coffee; acts as a mild stimulant.
CaffeineA mild stimulant of an Alkaloid substance found in tea and coffee
CAFREALThe principal ingredient is marinated in a paste made from chilies, lime juice, coriander leaves, mint leaves and spices, then either deep fried, barbecued or roasted.
CAILLETEA faggot made of liver, meat, herbs, etc.
CAIMITOA very interesting fruit which comes in various colours - green, purple, rose,white or yellow with star shaped seeds inside. Also called 'Star Apple', it is a native of West Indies.
CAIPRISSIMABacardi, chopped lime wedge and sugar syrup.
CAJUNForm of cooking that is a combination of French and southern cuisines.
CAJUN BLACKENING SPICEBlack pepper, dried thyme, garlic, onion powder, oregano, paprika, sea salt, sweet paprika and white pepper powder.
CALABACITAA variety of summer squash found in Mexican cooking.
CalabacitaA variety of summer squash found in Mexican cooking.
CALABACITASCourgettes cooked with onion, garlic, tomatoes and chillies.
CALABASH-A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called'bottle gourd'.
CALABRESEType of broccoli, bluish green with compact flowers.
CalabreseType of broccoli, bluish green with compact flowers.
CALAMARIThe Italian word for squid.
CALAMARIThis ten-armed cephalopod, commonly known as 'squid', is related to the octopus. The meat is firm and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavour. Over-cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.
CalamariThe Italian word for squid.
CALAMONDINA citrus fruit, look like small orange or lime.
CalamondinA citrus fruit, look like small orange or lime.
CALAZONEliterally means "stuffed stocking" - A fold over pizza stuffed with cheese and meat.
Calazoneliterallymeans 'stuffed stocking' - A fold over pizza stuffed with cheese and meat.
Calazoneliterally means 'stuffed stocking' - a type of pizza that is folded in half before cooking to contain a filling, usually cheese and meat.
CALCIUMA mineral required for the building of healthy bones and teeth.
CalciumA mineral that is needed for healthy bones and teeth
Caldo VerdePortuguese soup prepared with cabbage, potatoes, broth, and olive oil.
CALDRONA large metal pot (kettle) for cooking over an open fire, with a large mouth and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.
CALF/LAMBYoung member of bovine family, approximately 3-8 months old.
CALIENTEThis is the Spanish word for "hot" and it refers to temperature.
CALIPASHThe fatty meat from the upper shell of the turtle, nowdays obtained in canned or dried form.
CalipashThe fatty meat from the upper shell of the turtle, attained in the form of canned goods or dried.
CALLALOOSoup with callaloo leaves, vegetables, salt, pork, coconut milk and spices.
CALORIE-Unit of energy used to denote nutritional values of food now called a kilocalorie, which is the amount of raise the temperature of 1kg water by 1degree C.?
CALORIE-The unit of energy used to denote nutritional values of food is called a kilocalorie, which is the amount required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1degree celsius.
CalorieUnit of energy used to denote nutritional values of food.
CalvadosAn apple brandy
CALYPSO COFFEECoffee with Tia Maria.
CALZONEA half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather than inside.
Calzonea type of pizza that is folded in half before cooking to contain a filling.
CAMBRIDGE SAUCEMixed with pounded boiled egg, anchovy fillet, capers, chervil, tarragon, chives,vinegar, cayenne pepper and parsley.
CAMELLIA SINENSISThe botanical name of the plant from which tea is derived.
CAMEMBERT CHEESEA French cheese. Mild to pungent, edible crust, creamy yellow.
CAN STOCK PHOTOcan stock photo
CANADIAN WHITEThick, protein-rich sliced sandwich bread.
Canadian WhiteProtein rich, thick, sliced sandwich bread.
CANAPE-Small open sandwich- small slice of bread cut into various shapes , plain,?toasted or fried, spread and garnished, served as an appetizer or cocktail snack.
CanapeA small open sandwich that is served as a snack, cut into various shapes , plain, toasted or fried.
CANDENASBox containing the personal cutlery of a nobleman in medieval times.
CandenasBox enclosing the individual nobleman's cutlery in medieval times.
CANDYINGThe nuts are frosted by cooling with bitten egg white, dusting in castor sugar and drying them.
CandyingNuts frosted by chilling with bitten egg white, and coated with castor sugar.
CANE SYRUPThick, extremely sweet syrup made from the sugar cane.?
CANELONESsmall stuffed rolls of pastry or rice.
Canelonestiny stuffed rolls of pastry or rice.
CANESTRATO CHEESESicilian cheese made of ewe's milk, ripened, then aged. Bright yellow with a pungent flavoured.
CANH CHUASour fish and vegetable soup from Vietnam.
CANJAPortuguese chicken and pasta soup flavoured with lemon and parsley.
CANNELLINIVariety of pasta: White kidney beans, which are oval-shaped and dried, are called Cannellini in Italian. Also known as haricot beans.
CANNELLINI BEANA large white Italian kidney bean.
Cannellini beanA big white Italian kidney bean.
CANNELLONILarge tubes of pasta; which are stuffed and served in a sauce, also the name of the dish.A tubular pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish, which is sauced and baked.
CANNELLONIVariety of pasta: cylindrical stuffed.
Cannellonitubes of pasta, stuffed and served in a sauce.
CANNOLIA crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common flavourings for this cheese mixture.
CannoliA crunchy pastry tube stuffed with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied fruit.
CANOLA OILThe market name for rapeseed oil. Low in saturated fat and it has more mono saturated fat than any oil other than olive oil as well as Omega-3 fatty acids... thought to help lower cholesterol.
Canola oilAlso called rapeseed oil. Low in saturated fat and it has mono saturated fat, helps in cholesterol control.
CANTAL CHEESEFrench, cow's milk cheese. Rich, savory, semiform with a golden color.
CANTALOUPELarge netted type of melon with light orange flesh.
CantaloupeLarge netted type of melon with light orange flesh.
CANTONESEA type of Chinese cuisine that is famous for its meat roasting and grilling, fried rice, bird?s nest soup and shark fin soup.
CAPALINType of caviar obtained from a small member of the salmon family found in the Arctic Ocean.
CapalinType of caviar attained from a small member of the salmon family found in the Arctic Ocean.
CAPELLI D ANGELOVariety of pasta: the finest cut angel-hair.
CAPELLINIVariety of pasta: fine vermicelli.
CAPERThe pickled bud from the caper bush which is used in sauces and as condiments for smoked fish and Nicosia salad.
CaperCapers are pickled flower buds, which are used in sauces and as condiments for smoked fish and Nicosia salad.
CAPER SAUCEButter sauce and chopped capers.
CAPERCAILLIELarge game bird of the grouse family, now farm-reared in Scotland.
CapercaillieLarge game bird of the grouse family, now farm-reared in Scotland.
CAPERSTiny pickled buds of a plant.
CapersTiny pickled buds of a plant.
CAPICOLLAA coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly seasoned, this sausage is served cold, thinly sliced, as for prosciutto.
CapicollaA highly seasoned, cold, thinly sliced and coarse Italian pork sausage.
CAPILLAIREVariety of fern that used to be used to flavour stock syrup.
CapillaireAn assortment of fern used to be used to flavour stock syrup.
CAPILOTADEa kind of hashed (ragout/stew) game or chicken.
Capilotademinced (ragout/stew) game or chicken.
CapilotadeStew made with chicken and mushrooms
CAPONChicken that has been fattened by being castrated which causes it to put on weight.
Caponcastrated fattened chicken which causes it to put on weight.
CAPONATAStew of onion, eggplant, tomato, pimento, celery and olives, similar to ratatouille.Salad of eggplant, celery, tomatoes, raisins and pine nuts.
CaponataStew of onion, eggplant, tomato, pimento, celery and olives, made like ratatouille.
CAPPUCCINOItalian coffee, prepared with espresso, hot milk,milk foam and cinnamon powder.
CAPRICE COCKTAILDry Gin, Benedictine, Dry vermouth and orange bitters.
CAPSICUMAnother name for pimento or pepper; available as green, yellow, red and white.
CapsicumAlso called pimento or pepper; found in green, yellow, red and white.
CARAFEA glass container used to serve wine, coffee, water or other beverages at the table, usually in litre and half-litre sizes and generally without a lid, cork or other stopper.
CarambolaStar fruit
CARAMELwater and sugar boiled together and reduced to make a golden brown toffee.
Caramelwater and sugar boiled and reduced to make a soft toffee like golden brown liquid
CARAMELISEThe process through which natural sugars in foods become browned and flavourful while cooking. This is usually done over a constant low to medium-low heat. Caramelisation can be quickened with the addition of a little sugar. Either way, be careful not to burn the food.
CARAMELIZEto cook to release natural sugars, or until reaching brown color
Caramelizecooking to issue natural sugars, reaching brown colour
CARAMELIZEDCooking the sugar till it develops a dark brownish color.
CaramelizedCooking the sugar till it advances into a dark brownish color.
CARAQUEThinly spread melted chocolate, allowed to set and scraped into curls for cake decoration.
CaraqueLightly spread heated chocolate, set and scraped into curls for decoration.
CARAWAYSmall, brown, long and thin seeds that look like cumin or celery seeds.
Carawayseeds that look like cumin or celery seeds.
CARBOHYDRATEA nutrient which has three main groups; sugar, starch and cellulose
CarbohydrateA nutrient which has three main groups; sugar, starch and cellulose
CARBON DIOXIDEA gas produced by all raising agents
Carbon dioxideA gas produced by all raising agents
CARBONARAItalian term that refers to a pasta dish of spaghetti or other noodles with a sauce or cream, eggs, parmesan cheese and bits of bacon. Fresh green peas are sometimes used to add flavor and colour.
CARBONNADEbraised steak.
Carbonnadebraised steak
CarbonnadeStew prepared by thin beef steaks roasted in beer with onions.
CARBOONVegetable of the thistle family, similar to leek and celery.
CarboonVegetable of the thistle family, like leek and celery.
CARCASSSlaughtered, eviscerated animal.
CARCASSEBone structure without the meat.
CarcasseBone structure without the meat
CARDAMOMAromatic spice, small green pod with black seeds inside .member of the ginger family.
CARDINAL SAUCELobster sauce made with truffles, diced lobster, lobster butter, cayenne pepper and fish stock.
CARDOONResembles a large bunch of wide, flat celery.
CAREMEHam forcemeat Madeira Sauce.
CARIGNAN SAUCETomato-flavoured demi-glace finished with port wine.
CARISSAAlso known as Natal plum, it is two inches long and is a native of South Africa.
CARNE ASADABeef or pork cut into thin diagonal strips and cooked quickly over a very hot fire.
Carne Molida CrudaLiterally 'meat ground raw'
CARNE MOLIDACRUDALiterally meat ground raw.
CAROBComes from the fruit of the carob or tamarind tree. Its flavour and colour are similar to cocoa or chocolate. Since carob has less fat than chocolate, it is often used as a dietetic alternative.
CAROTENOIDThe yellow and orange pigment in carrots and pumpkins.
CarpaccioCarpaccio is an Italian dish of raw meat or fish, thinly sliced or pounded thin and served mainly as an appetizer.
Carpacciothin slices of raw meat, sprinkled with olive oil and served with capers, mustard or mayonnaise sauce.
CARPETBAG STEAKDouble sirloin steak cut open to form a pocket into which raw oyster are placed before being grilled.
Carpetbag steaksteak cut open to form a pocket into which raw oyster are placed.
CARRAGEENPurple-coloured seaweed used as a substitute for gelatine; also called Irish moss.
CarrageenPurple-coloured seaweed- a substitute for gelatine.
CARRAQUEScroll flakes of dark chocolate obtained by pouring a thin layer of chocolate on a smooth surface and spread with a palette knife until it sets.
CarreRack of veal or lamb
CARRE DE L EST CHEESEFrench. Known as a cross between Brie and Camembert. The crust may also be eaten unless it is coloured deep yellow or orange.
CARTE DU JOURDaily menu of the table d?h?te type, priced by the meal, not the dish.
Carte du JourDaily menu of the table d'hote type, priced by the meal, not the dish.
Cartouchea round of paper used to cover meats during cooking process, often smeared with oils
CARURUBrazilian stew made with dried shrimps, okra, tomatoes and palm nut oil.
CASEINThe protein in milk solidifies, which curdles or coagulates into cheese through the action of rennet.
CASERA CHEESEMade in Turkey or Greece. Goat' s milk cheese, salty and crumbly. Sharp, firm and similar in flavor to Fontina. When young, soft enough to spread, when aged, firm and zesty.
CASHEW NUTSCrescent shaped nuts usually served an appetised.
Cashew nutsCrescent shaped nuts served as appetiser.
CASHKAVALLO CHEESEThe Balkan versions of the Italian cheese.
CASSATACream ices of various flavours containing candied fruits macerated in maraschino and chopped nuts, set in an oblong mould.
CASSATADifferent layers of multiple flavors of rich ice cream made with nuts and fruits with pastry crust.
CassataCandied fruits with nuts kept in cream ices of various flavours.
CassataVarious varying layers of multiple flavors of rich ice cream made with nuts and fruits with pastry crust.
CASSAVARoot of a tropical bush ground and refined as a staple food of the West Indies and Africa; the residue is made into tapioca.
CassavaRoot of a tropical bush ground as a staple food, and deposit is made into tapioca.
CasseroleAn earthenware dish closed by a lid
CasseroleEnclosed earthware dish used for cooking and serving.
CassisBlack currant & black currant liquer
CASSONADESoft brown sugar as used for coffee to which it gives a slightly spicy flavour.
CassonadeSoft brown sugar used as coffee, which it gives a slightly spicy flavour.
CassouletStew made of beans and a variety of meats.
CassouletA stew of beans baked with pork or other meats and seasonings.
CassouletOven-coked dish of goose, pork and haricot beans- a form of stew.
CASTLETON PLUMThe fruit is blue, round, and similar in appearance to Stanley.
CATIMNUONGAubergines cooked with lime.
CAULMembrane that covers an animal's intestine, used for covering cromesquis, faggots, etc., before cooking.
CaulAmniotic membrane covering an animal's intestine- used for covering cromesquis, faggots, etc., before cooking.
CAUL FATThe stomach lining of pork which is used in place of back fat for pates and to encase crepinettes.?
Caul FatMembrane of animal organs, used as a casing for sausages and other meat.
CAULDRONSA large metal pot (kettle) for cooking over an open fire, with a large mouth and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.
CauldronsA big metal pot (kettle) with a large mouth, used for cooking over an open fire and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.
CAVALIER SAUCETomato-flavoured demi-glace with mustard and tarragon vinegar garnished with capers and diced gherkins.
CaviarRoe of a sturgeon fish.
Caviareggs of sturgeon, salted and cured.
CAYENNE PEPPERVery strong type of ground pepper, made from chillies.
Cayenne pepperVery solid ground pepper, prepared from chillies.
CAZUELAS AND OLLASTraditional Mexican earthenware, casseroles and claypots.
CDPChef De partie
CECIThe round irregularly shaped buff-colored legumes with a firm texture and a mild nut-like flavor. Also called "chick-peas" and "garbanzo beans." Used in salads, soups, and stews.
CeciRound, irregular shape of beans- also called "chick-peas". Used in salads, soups, and stews.
CELERIACThis vegetable is the root of a special celery that is cultivated specifically for its root. It tastes like a cross between parsley and a strong celery. Used in soups, stews, and purees. Also known as "celery root" and "celery knob."
CeleriacThe root of a special celery, tasting like a cross between parsley and a strong celery. Used in soups, stews, and purees.
CELERYOne of the most popular vegetables in the Western world. This plant grows in bunches of leaved ribs surrounding a tender heart. Eaten raw and used in soups, stews, and casseroles.
CeleryPopular vegetable, growing in leaved ribs surrounding a tender heart. Eaten raw and used in soups, stews, and casseroles.
CELERY SALTA seasoning composed of celery seed and salt.
Celery SaltA seasoning made of celery seed and salt.
Celery SaltREPEATED.
CELERY SEEDThe seed of the wild celery called "lovage," most of which is grown in India. Because of its strong flavor, it should be used sparingly. Used in soups, salads, and meat dishes
Celery SeedA strong flavoured seed of the wild celery called lovage, should be used sparingly. Used in meat dishes, soup etc.
Celery SeedREPEATED.
CELLOPHANE NOODLEA form of translucent Chinese noodles made from the starch of mung beans.
Cellophane NoodleGlassy Chinese noodles made from starch of mung beans.
Cellophane NoodleGlassy Chinese noodle, which aren't true noodles, but are made from the starch of mung beans.
Cellophane NoodleREPEATED.
CELLOPHANE NOODLESVariety of pasta: made from bean or pea starch.
CelluloseThe grainy arrangement of fruit, vegetables and cereals
CelsiusThe centigrade temperature scale invented by A.Celsius(1701-44).
CELTUSEA variety of lettuce that exhibits characteristics of both celery and lettuce. Celtuse can be eaten raw or cooked.
CeltuseLettuce that is like celery and lettuce- can be eaten raw or cooked.
CENCIONIVariety of pasta: oval-shaped and curved upwards like a petal.
CEPEFlap mushroom; thick, fleshy and moist.
CerfVenison, specifically stag and deer.
CERFEUILChervil, a delicate herb with fern-like leaves, used to garnish consommes and as an integral part of fines herbs.
CerfeuilFrench for Chervil, used to garnish.
CERVELASFrench smoked sausages similar to a saveloy, made of pork but also available made from fish such as pike.
CervelasFrench smoked sausages like a saveloy, made of pork, and fish such as pike.
CERVENAMeat from New Zealand farmed deer.
CervenaMeat from New Zealand farmed deer
CESNICABaked during Christmas season with a solid silver coin in the dough for good luck; the family member whose bread piece contains the coin is viewed as the most fortunate for the year.
CesnicaA Christmas ritual, with a silver coin in the dough as a sign of good luck. The person who finds the solid silver coin in their slice of bread is considered to be the most fortunate for the year to follow.
CEVICHEMarinated raw fish in lemon and lime juices with onion rings; serve with julienne of pimento and hard-boiled egg.Served differently in different countries.
CEVICHEFish pickled in lime juice.
CevicheRaw fish marinated in lemon and lime juices with onion rings.
CHAAT MASALAAmchur (mango powder), black salt, cayenne pepper, cumin seeds, fennel seeds, ground ginger and mint.
CHABICHOU CHEESEGoat's milk, soft, smooth, from France.
CHABLISIt is a clear, pale white and dry wine made from Chardonnay grapes.
CHAHKANGKUNGStir-fried cabbage greens.
CHAIChai is 'tea' in India. Traditional Indian chai combines very black tea that is boiled in milk and flavoured with local spices such as ginger and cardamom.
ChainsooDish prepared by using black gram dal.
CHAKKITwo circular grinding stone hold slight apart, either vertically or horizontally, to de-husking or grinding of various grains.
ChakkiA kind of flour mill machine with two circular grinding stone held slight apart, vertically or horizontally, to de-husking or grinding of various grains
CHALAZAECord-like strands of egg white that indicate the egg's freshness.
CHALLAHJewish plaited bread.
CHALLAHBraided bread, made with wheat flour, yeast, oil/butter and eggs.
ChallahWheat flour, yeast, oil and eggs formed into dough and braided.
CHALUPASThick, filled, boat shaped tortillas.
CHAM CHAMCottage cheese dumplings, stewed in light sugar syrup and filled with thickened milk and cream
CHAMBORDVery fruity liqueur made from black raspberries.
CHAMOMILEBasically used as a tisane for digestive upsets. The leaves, seeds and flowers are used for flavouring food or in medicine.
CHANTELLE CHEESESemisoft, ripened French cheese. Pale golden; delicious with pears or pineapple.
CHANTILLYWhipped cream sweetened with sugar.
Chantillywhipped cream- sugared
CHAPATIWhole wheat bread from unfermented dough made with salt and water, rolled thin and flat and cooked on a griddle.
CHAPTALISATIONDuring colder years the grapes don't make enough sugar and are therefore not sweet enough, resulting in low sugar levels in the wine. The addition of sugar to wines is called chaptalisation.
CHARCHARIUsed to cook a variety of vegetable which are cut into thin strips and then seasoned with ground spices like mustard seeds/poppy seeds and flavored with phoron.
CharchariUnique char-flavoured vegetable dish of Bangladesh and India, where vegetables are cut into thin strips.
CHARCUTERIEButcher shop.
CharcuterieButcher shop
CHARCUTIERButcher and sausage maker.
CharcutierButcher and sausage maker
CHARLOTTESponge fingers lined in a circle, filled with fruit puree.
CHARTREUSE GREENHerb flavoured liqueur.
CHASSEUR SAUCEDemi-glace with mushrooms.
CHATEAUBRIANDDouble steak cut from the beef tenderloin.
CHATEAUBRIANDA large steak cut from the head, also called double fillet steak. It approximately weighs 340 gms.
ChateaubriandDouble steak cut from the beef tenderloin
CHAUD-FROIDHot and Cold. Food coated with cold white sauce.
Chaud-froidHot and Cold.
CHAUD-FROID SAUCEHot and cold thick white tomato sauce glaced with jelly or aspic.
CHAUTEAUBRIAND SAUCEDemi-glace, white wine, chopped mushrooms, thyme, tarragon, cayenne ,pepper and parsley.
CHAWAN MUSHIThick custard soup.
CHAWANMUSHIA Japanese savoury egg custard. Eggs are gently beaten with fish stock, then poured over bits of various ingredients like chicken, prawns, gingko nuts, lily root, fishcake, etc. and steamed over boiling water.
CHEDDAR CHEESEMild to sharp, has an appetizing, nutty flavor, and a firm buttery texture; cream-colored to orange, made in America.
CHEF DE CUISINEChef in charge.
Chef de CuisineChef in charge
CHEF DE PARTIEChef in charge of a section of the kitchen.
Chef de partieChef in charge of a section of the kitchen
CHEF S KNIFEA chef's knife is one of the most versatile cutting equipment one can find in the kitchen. It has a wide triangular blade which tapers to the center tip. A lot of tasks in the kitchen are made easy with this knife since it can be used for mincing, slicing, cutting juliennes, smashing garlic and disjointing large cuts of meat.
Chef's knifeA chef's knife is one of the most versatile cutting equipment one can find in the kitchen. It has a wide triangular blade which tapers to the center tip. A lot of tasks in the kitchen are made easy with this knife since it can be used for mincing, slicing, cutting juliennes, smashing garlic and disjointing large cuts of meat.
Chef's knifeOne of the more essential and versatile tools in kitchen equipment. A wide triangular blade tapers to the tip in the center, which makes tasks like mincing, slicing, foods to disjointing larger cuts of meat
CHELAS SIDECAR COCKTAILDry Gin, Cointreau, lime juice and sugar syrup.
CHERIMOYAA large tropical fruit with cream coloured flesh.
CHERMOULASpice rub from the ginger, garlic, cumin, chilies, coriander seed etc, from North America countries.
ChermoulaUsed to flavor fish, and other kinds of meat.
CHERVILThis herb has a sweet taste similar to tarragon and should be added at the completion of cooking. It is widely used to flavour stews, fish, steamed vegetables and certain sauces that require tarragon.It is also used in salads, salad dressings, meat dishes, savoury sauces, egg dishes or as a chopped garnish.
CHESHIRE CHEESEEnglish cheese. Hard-pressed, firm, comes in red, white and blue varieties.?
CHEVRE CHEESEFrench Cheese. Made from goat milk, very pungent and creamy.?
CHHANAAcidification of milk by lemon or other mild acid to make cottage cheese.
CHHANAR JILIBIAn irregular shaped dessert from Bengal,made with cottage cheese,deep fried and steeped in saffron-flavoured sugar syrup.
CHHENCHKKMethod used to cook vegetables and sometimes even their peels. In this the vegetables are flavored with panchphoran or mustard seeds or cumin. Chopped onion and garlic can also be used to add flavor to the dish.
ChhenchkkMethod used to cook and flavor vegetables and sometimes their peels with panchphoran or mustard seeds or cumin, onion and garlic can also be used.
CHICHARRONFried, crispy pork skin, similar to crackling. The skin is twice deep-fried at two different temperatures, causing it to balloon into honeycombed puffs.
CHICKEN BOOYAHA chicken stew-soup generally found in Wisconsin.
CHICKEN FAJITIAS :Chicken strips marinated with red chili paste , garlic , lemon juice and cooked with thin julienne of capsicum,onion and tomato.
CHICORYAn endive relative with curly, slightly bitter leaves that are used in salads or cooked as greens.?
CHIDVABitten rice or rice flake.
ChidvaBitten rice or rice flake
CHIFFONADEShredded leafy vegetables like spinach and lettuce.
CHIFFONNADEA ribbon like cut of leafy vegetables ie;lettuce
ChiffonnadeA ribbon like cut of leafy vegetables, like lettuce.
CHIKKIVarious nuts or dry fruits or seeds mixed with jaggeryto set hard in ball or slab shape.
ChikkiJaggery mixed with nuts and/or dry fruits or seeds to set as a hard ball or slab like shape.
CHIKUWAA variety of Japanese fish paste cake.
CHILI POWDERPowdered, dried whole red chilli.
CHILLI SAUCEMade in different colours from different chillies.
CHILLIESMembers of the pepper family. Three groups - tabasco, jalapeno and cayenne - are divided into hundreds of varieties with different shapes and degree of hotness.
ChilliesMembers of the pepper family.
CHIMICHANGASStuffed, tortillas folded from four side and deep fried.
CHIMICHANGASTortilla is shaped into a parcel , filled and deep fried.
ChimichangasStuffed, tortillas folded from four sides and deep fried.
ChinoisA cone shaped metal strainer with a very fine mesh that is ideal for straining, sauces, soups and custards.
ChinoisA metal strainer with the shape of a cone, containing a very fine mesh that is good for straining sauces, soups and custards
ChinoisA rigid cone shaped strainer of perforated metal used to strain sauces and soups.
Chinoisconical sieve with an extremely fine mesh, used to strain sauces and soups.
ChinoiseA cone- shaped strainer or sieve
CHIPOLATAA type of small sausage or/a type of pastry used for eclairs Choucroute- Saurkrautpickeled with salt & fermented.
Chipolatasmall sausage or a pastry used for eclairs
CHIPSSliced into Chips.
ChironjiA small dried seeds taken from the husk of a bush called Buchanania lanzan.
CHIVESThis is a mild,onion flavoured herb,especially good for fish, chicken, egg dishes and potatoes.Chives enhance the taste of almost any buttered vegetable such as carrots, beans, sweet corn, squash, peas, cauliflower and mushrooms.
CHIVRY SAUCEVeloute, white wine, shallots, tarragon, parsley, chives, butter and chervil.
CHLOROPHYLLThe fat-soluble pigment found in every green vegetable including broccoli, spinach and green beans.
CHOCOLATECocoa seeds roasted, husked and ground.?
CHOCOLATE CURLSChocolate curls are used to decorate desserts and other confections. To make chocolate curls, take a vegetable peeler with a long, narrow blade and warm it slightly (or warm the chocolate). Draw the peeler along the smooth surface of the chocolate to make curls.
CHOCOLATIEROne who works with the production of chocolate.
ChopTo cut food into irregular small pieces
ChorizaMexican sausage.
CHORON SAUCEBearnaise with tomato puree.
Choucroutepickled cabbage
CHOUX PASTEChoux pastry, cream puff and eclair butter.
CHOWCHOWA mustard-flavored relish of vegetables and pickles.
CHOWDERChowder is like a stew containing chunks of ingredients . Most chowders contain potatoes.
CHRISTIAN IX CHEESEDanish, semifirm. Made with caraway seeds.?
CHRISTMAS WAFEREmbossed with images of Christian figures, such as Jesus, or Virgin Mary.
Christmas WaferThin wafers embossed with figurines of Christian Identities, like Jesus, or Virgin Mary.
CHULAHA mud fireplace or oven.
ChulahA mud fire place or oven.
CHUNAMSlacked lime.
ChunamSlacked lime
CHURMAMade with flour cooked with ghee and sugar.
CHURNINGHomemade butter making process, by using long stick & rope.
ChurningThe process of making homemade butter by using a stick and a rope
CHUTNEY-From the Hindi chatni, a condiment made from fruit, vinegar, sugar and spices; its texture can range from smooth to chunky and its flavour from mild to hot.
ChutneyA coarse paste of various ingredients that uses coconut as a base. It takes the name of the ingredient which gives the main flavour. For example, if mint is used then it is called mint chutney. These are normally tempered with mustard seeds, Bengal gram dal and curry leaves in a little oil
ChutneyA grounded paste made from different ingredients, with the base as coconut or several lentils and flavoured with chillies, raw mangoes.
CHU-TOROPinkish tuna meat of middle fatness.
CIABATTAElongated, broad and flat Italian white bread made from wheat flour and yeast.
CiabattaBroad, flat Italian bread made from wheat flour and yeast, elongated.
Cichetti e l ombraa little bite and the shade, bite is the food, shade is a glass of wine
CICHETTI E LOMBRAA little bite and the shade, bite is the food, shade is a glass of wine.
Cichetti e l'ombraCichetti are small bites or plates of food whereas l'ombra is a glass of wine
CilantroCoriander leaves
CilantroFresh coriander.
CILANTRO LEAVESPungent herb, also called "Chinese parsley" and "coriander," is used in highly seasoned foods.
CINNAMONSpice comes from the inner bark of a tropical evergreen tree.
CIOPPINOCalifornian tomato broth with a variety of seafood.
CLABBER CHEESEEnglish name for pot cheese.
CLAMARTGreen peas, chateau potatoes.
CLARETDark red wine from Bordeaux, France.
ClaretDark red wine from Bordeaux, France
CLARIFYRemove impurities from butter or stock by heating the liquid, then straining or skimming it.
CLASSIC CUISINEA late 19th-and early 20th-century refinement and simplification of French grandecuisine. Classic (or classical) cuisine relies on the thorough exploration of culinary principles and techniques, and emphasises the refined preparation and presentation of superb ingredients.
CLEAVERA heavy, versatile knife with a large rectangular blade used for cutting through bone.
CLING FILMCling film or food wrap is made of Low density Polyethylene (LDPE) which is a thin plastic film used for sealing food.
Cling filmA thin plastic film made of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), used in sealing food.
CLINGSTONEA term that refers to a fruit with a pit to which the flesh clings tenaciously. The term with the opposite meaning is "freestone".
CLOTTED CREAMClotted cream is a type of thick, delicious cream. Fresh unpasteurised cow's milk is left to stand in a warm place and then heated gently. It is skimmed from the surface and the resulting cream collected and cooled. The thick and delicious cream is served with scones, puddings,fruits etc.
CLOUTEROnion cloute; an onion studded with cloves.
ClouterOnion cloute; an onion studded with cloves
CLOVEA dried spice of unopened flower bud of the tropical evergreen clove tree.
CLOYSTERS COCKTAILDry Gin, Chartreuse Yellow Liqueur, grapefruit juice, lime juice, sugar syrup and chilled mineral water.
COCK-A-LEEKIESoup made from chicken, potatoes and leeks.
COCKTAIL SAUCETomato puree, Worcestershire, Tabasco and lemon with base of mayonnaise.
COCOAThe fruit of the cocoa plant. These beans are fermented, dried, roasted, cracked and ground. After extracting half the fat, it is again dried into unsweetened cocoa.?
COCOA BUTTERA non-dairy product, it is a natural vegetable fat extracted from the cacao bean and
COCOLIs one of the oldest types of Mexican bread made from wheat flour, milk and eggs.
COCONUT CREAMCoconut cream is made by combining one part water and four parts shredded coconut meat and simmering until foamy. The coconut is then discarded and the cream is extracted.
COCONUT FLOURcoconut flour
COCONUT MILKCoconut milk is made by combining equal parts of water and shredded coconut meat and ground and the milk is squeezed and removed.
COCONUT WATERThe opaque white liquid in the un ripened coconut.
COCOTTEAn oven proof dish (small).
CocotteA small oven proof dish
CODDLEA cooking method in which eggs are put in separate containers, placed in a pan of?simmering water for slow and gentle cooking.
COEUR A LA CREME CHEESEDelicate, soft, creamy French dessert cheese.
COIMBRA CHEESEPortuguese semi firm, salty-sharp cheese which is sometimes made from goat's milk.
COINTREAUBrandy and oranges flavoured liqueur.
COLANDERA vessel having small holes in the bottom used as a Steiner.
COLANDERThe name colander is derived from the Latin word 'column' which means sieve. This is a bowl shaped utensil with holes in it used for draining.
ColanderThe name colander is derived from the Latin word 'colum' which means sieve. This is a bowl shaped utensil with holes in it used for draining.
ColanderOriginated from the Latin word 'colum' it means to sieve. A bowl shaped utensil with holes in it, used to drain water out.
COLBY CHEESEAmerican. Softer, open textured. White to medium yellow in color and is good for both cooking and eating plain.
COLESLAWA salad of shredded red or white cabbage and mayonnaise.
COLLARDA variety of cabbage that doesn't form a head, but grows in a loose rosette at the top of a tall stem. It tastes like a cross between cabbage and kale, which is a close relative, and is also called 'collard greens'.
COLODTRUMSThick milk of dairy animals soon after birth of the calf.
COLOMBIA PASQUALEBread made with flour, eggs, sugar, natural yeast, butter and candied peel. The dough is then fashioned into a dove shape and finally is topped with pearl sugar and almond before being baked.
Colombia PasqualeFlour, eggs, sugar and natural yeast made with butter and candied peel to form a dough; which is then sculpted to the shape of a dove, and then topped with pearl sugar and almonds prior to baking.
COLORADO BLACKIE CHEESEA natural cheese belonging to the Cheddar family. It comes with a black outer wrapping.
COMMISApprentice in the kitchen or dining room.
CommisStudent in the kitchen or dining room
CompoteStewed fruit
COMPOUND BUTTERFlavoured butter or butter seasoned with various ingredients is called compound butter.
COMTE CHEESEFrench cheese, similar to Gruyere. Ivory yellow. Repeatedly dressed with salt as it ages.
CONCASSERto chop roughly(usually tomatoes).
Concasserto chop roughly
CONCHIGLIEVariety of pasta: seashell-shaped.
CONFITVegetables or meat or poultry cooked & preserved in its own fat.
CONGEALTo turn liquid into solid by chilling.
CONNECTIVE TISSUETissue, which supports and binds other tissues in the lean meat of a carcass.
CONSERVECombination of fruits cooked with sugar,often with nuts and raisins added.
CONVECTION OVENA convection oven is a conventional oven with a fan or blower to circulate the hot air in the oven. The oven works by heating the food within it. It does so by transferring the heat energy in the air to the surface of the food.
Convection ovenA convection oven circulates hot air with a fan.
COOKIE CUTTERA cookie cutter is a tool with sharp edges used for cutting cookie dough into specific decorative shapes.
Cookie cutterA tool that comes in various shapes, with sharp edges that are used to cut cookie dough to form decorative figures
COON CHEESEA natural Cheddar-type cheese, well aged, very sharp, piquant, almost white in color, slightly crumbly.?
COOPER CHEESEA mild Cheddar from Vermont.
COPPA SALTcured, sweet & fragrant neck of pork from Northern Italy.
COPPER ILLUSION COCKTAILDry Gin, Cointreau and Campari bitter.
Coppia FerrareseFlour, lard, olive and malted mixed to make a twisted sourdough bread.
COPPIAFERRARESETwisted sourdough bread made with flour, lard, olive, and malt.
COQ AU VINA classic French chicken dish with mushrooms, onions, and bacon or salted pork cooked in red wine.
COQUILLECooked and served in a shell.
CoquilleCooked and served in a shell
CORDIAL AND LIQUEURSThe terms 'cordial' and 'liqueur' are often used interchangeably. They both refer to very sweet liqueur made by combining or re-distilling spirits with one or more aromatic flavourings. But there are subtle differences. Liqueurs are flavoured with flowers, herbs, seeds, roots, plants, barks or spices, while cordials are generally prepared with fruit pulp or juices.
CORDON BLEUFrench for "blue ribbon".
CORETo remove the inner portion.
CORN SILK TEACorn silk is the yellow silky strands that run the length of the ear of corn. On its own, corn silk is not food, but can be made into a tea known for its therapeutic qualities for urinary disorders.
CORN SYRUPSyrup derived from cornstarch.
CORNBREADA baked or fried bread and has a golden appearance with a moist interior.
CornbreadBaked or fried, with a golden crust and a moist interior.
CORNED BEEFBeef cured in brine or coarse salt.
CORNETA cone shaped pastry made with brick pastry which is similar to the spring roll pastry.?
CornetA cone like pastry prepared with brick pastry, highly similar to the spring roll pastry.
CORNHUSKER CHEESENatural aged Cheddar-type but softer.
CORNISH GAME HENAlso called 'Rock Cornish game hen', a hybrid of Cornish and White Rock chickens. These miniature fowl are about 4 to 6 weeks old and weigh about 1 kilogram - enough for one serving.
COSMOPOLITAN COCKTAILCointreau, Vodka Citron, Cranberry and lime juice.
COTTAGE CHEESEMild, neutral taste; soft, moist; large or small curd; white.
COTTAGE LOAFThe loversare madewhen largerand smaller roughly spherical balls are squashed together, forming a cottage shape.
Cottage loafTwo spherical balls, one slightly larger than the other; squashed together. Resembling the shape of a cottage.
COTTENHAM CHEESEEnglish semifirm, double-cream cheese, sometimes veined with blue, that is creamier and richer than Stilton.
COULOMMIERS CHEESEVelvetly-soft, delicate flavoured dessert cheese from France. When well ripened, it develops a stronger almond-like flavor. Crust is white, with a creamy interior.
COUPEA shallow stemmed glass; also ice cream with the fruit and chantilly cream served in such a glass.
CoupeA thin glass used to serve ice cream, fruit and chantilly cream
COURT BOUILLONA broth often prepared as the cooking liquid for seafood and sometimes vegetables.
COUSCOUSCouscous is a coarsely ground semolina. It is a staple grain in many North African countries.
COUVERTUREA smooth chocolate, rich, creamy and high in cocoa content, best used for coating fruits,as it forms a thin shell.
CRABAPPLEA small, red apple with hard, sour flesh. Best used in jams and jellies.
CRANBERRY SAUCECranberry puree, sugar and water.
CRAPEThin pancakes made with flour and eggs, can be stuffed with cheese, asparagus, ham, spinach, eggs, ratatouille, mushrooms, artichoke or meat product.
CrapeThin pancakes with stuffing inside the flour and egg dough. Variety of fillings can be included, like cheese, asparagus, ham, spinach, eggs, ratatouille, mushrooms, artichoke or meat product.
CREAMTo beat fat & sugar to incorporate air break down the sugar crystals to soften the fat.
CreamBeating fat and sugar so that air breaks the sugar crystals and softens the fat.
CREAM CHEESEAmerican cheese. Mild, buttery, soft, smooth, white. An acid curd cheese that is very high in fat content. Highly perishable and never ripened.
CREAM OF TARTARA natural fruit acid in the form of a fine white powder used as a whiteness stabiliser in confectionery.
CREMAsweet dessert or a thick creamy soup.
CREMA DANICA CHEESEVery smooth, soft, triple-creme dessert cheese produced in Denmark. Superb with black cherries and cognac.
CREMA-AGRIAMexican cream.
Crema-AgriaMexican cream
CREME BRULEECustard topped with a crust of caramelized sugar.
CREME CHANTILLY CHEESEA soft, delicate flavored French dessert cheese.
CREME DE ANANASPineapple flavoured liqueur.
CREME DE CACAOCocoa beans and vegetables flavoured liqueur.
CREME DE FRAMBOISESRaspberry flavoured liqueur.
CREME DE GRUYERE CHEESEA soft, ripened French cheese with the flavor of Gruyere but the consistency of Camembert. Delicious as a spread for crackers or as a topping for fruit.
CREME DE MENTHEMint flavoured liqueur.
CREME DE ROSERose oil and brandy flavoured liqueur.
CREME FRAICHEThe original French creme fraiche is a naturally fermented and matured raw double cream. But a similar product can be?made by combining cup of sour cream with 1 cup of heavy cream and warming the mixture to 27 degree celsius.?
CREME FRAICHEThe mixture is then covered partially and allowed to stand in a warm place overnight. It should then be stirred and chilled and used as required.
CREME FRAICHEFresh cream that has been thickened with culturing or souring agent.
Creme fraicheFresh cream that has been set with culturing or souring agent.
CREOLE CHEESEAmerican. Soft unripened cheese made of equal parts of cottage cheese and cream.
CREOLE SAUCESauteed onions, garlic and brunoise of capsicum.
CrepeA thin pancake.
CREPINETTEFatty veil that encases the cuts of a pig.
CRESSVarious plants belonging to the mustard family, especially the watercress, which has a pungent-tasting leaf.
CrimpTo pinch together in order to seal
CRISP BREADVery dry, traditionally consist of whole meal rye flour, salt and water.
Crisp breadVery dry bread, primarily made from whole wheat rye flour, salt and water.
CROCUSThe flower from which saffron is extracted. It is one of the most expensive spices.
CROISSANT DEMI-SEL CHEESEFrench, double-creme dessert cheese molded in a crescent shape and lightly salt-cured.
CroissantsCrescent shaped French rolls
CROQUEMBOUCHEA decorative cone-shaped.
CROQUETTEbreaded, deep fried.
Croquettebreaded, deep-fried
CROSNEPerennial root vegetable, crisp and juicy little tubers that enhance any salad.
CrostiniSlices of barguette brushed or olive oil, topped with various fillings and used as a base for appetizer
CrostiniSlices of a bread cut into different shapes and toasted with the topping
CROUSTADEpastry crust.
CROUSTADEThese crispy cups can each hold about a tablespoon of filling, so they're perfect for making tiny horsdoeuvres and desserts.?
CroustadeThese crispy cups can each hold about a tablespoon of filling, so they're perfect for making tiny hors d'oeuvres and desserts.
Croustadepastry crust
CroutonsSlices of bread which are cut into numerous varying sizes and shapes, fried and used as a garnish.
CROXETTIVariety of pasta: coin or medallion-shaped.
CRUMBThe inside of the bread, not the crust. The consistency of the crumb depends on the ingredients for the bread: milk, buttermilk, gluten content, type of flour, grains, fat, type of sweetener,eggs, potatoes and so on.
CRUMPETFlat top, small pores with chewy and spongy texture, griddle cake made from flour and yeast. Their shape comes from being restrained in the pan/ griddle by the shallow ring.
CrumpetChewy, spongy griddle cake with a flat top and small pores. Made with flour and yeast, the shape comes from being kept in the pan by the shallow ring.
CUBAN BREADSimple white bread, similar to French bread and Italian bread.
Cuban breadSimilar to French bread and Italian bread.
CUBATA COCKTAILDry Gin, lime juice and Coco cola.
CUBEBThis is the small, reddish-brown, irregularly shaped seed of a cardamom-like plant. The seeds are contained in a brown, wrinkled, fig-shaped, dried capsule.
CUISINECuisine includes the food as well as the manner and the style in which it is prepared and served
CuisineStyle of food as well as the manner in which it is prepared and served
Cuisine BourgeoiseFrench for dishes made for family meals without a recipe, mainly those made with braised meat
CUISSONThe French term used to explain culinary processes and details, especially cooking times.
CULLEN SKINKScottish thick soup made from smoked haddock, potatoes and onions.
CUMBERLAND SAUCERed currant jelly, dissolved in port, garnished with chopped and blanched shallots, julienne of orange zest, lemon juice, mustard, cayenne pepper and ginger.
CUMINA nutty flavoured seed, this spice is a member of the parsley family.
CURACAOBitter orange flavoured liqueur.
CUREProcess of preserving food by either of the methods dry curing or liquid curing.
CureProcess of preserving food by either the methods of dry or liquid curing.
CURINGA stage in the cheese making process when a cheese is left to ripen.
CURRY BREADJapanese curry is wrapped in a piece of dough, which is coated in flaky bread crumbs, and deep fried or baked.
Curry breadA piece of dough which is wrapped over japanese curry, and deep fried after coating with flaky bread crumbs.
CURRY POWDERBlack peppercorns, cardamom, chillies, cloves, coriander seeds, cumin, fennel,fenugreek, garlic, mustard, nutmeg and turmeric.
CUTTING BOARDSA cutting board is a board on which vegetables and meat can be cut while protecting the kitchen counter. They are available both in wood and plastic.
Cutting boardsA board on which food can be cut, so as to avoid damage to the kitchen counter. Available in wood and plastic materials
CYCLIC MENUCyclic Menu is one that changes everyday for a certain period.
CYCLIC MENUe.g. Institutional menus, food festival, daily specials, special occasion menus etc.
CYCLIC MENUespecially , Table menus.
Cyclic MenuCyclic Menu is one that changes every day for a certain period.
DabFlatfish of the north-eastern Atlantic. It has a broken back.
DabFound in the North-Eastern Atlantic, this flat fish has a broken back.
DageAn Indonesian food produced by bacteria fermentation.
Dage may be prepared from various kinds of seeds.
Made from the presscake left after oil excretion from groundnuts or other nuts or from other vegetables waste.
DageA food of Indonesian origin, made by the process of bacteria fermentation; from a variety of seeds. It uses the byproduct of nuts like the groundnut, or vegetable waste, after they have been pressed to derive oil.
DalSplit pulse used extensively in Indian cuisine
DalProminent in Indian Cuisine; Split pulse.
DaliaBroken grain, like wheat, Rice, Bengal gram etc
DalnaIt used for a dish of mixed vegetables in a thick gravy and seasoned with ground spices and clarified butter or ghee.
DalnaMixed vegetables with thick gravy and seasoned with ground spices and ghee.
DamperWheat flour dough baked in Charcoal.
DampfnudelA dense bread with a white surface, moist in texture.
DamsonOval plum
Has astringent taste
DamsonOval plum
DandelionWild plant, relative to Chicory. Leaves, roots and flowers are edible
DandelionFrom the Chicory family, a Wild plant with edible Leaves, roots and flowers
Danish pastryYeast dough made with milk and eggs, into which butter has been folded by a method similar to that employed for making croissants. Before baking pastry is cut into small sheets and filled of various fillings.
Danish PastryA technique similar to that of making croissants, Yeast dough made with milk and eggs; with butter folded to it. It's cut into small sheets and typically filled with a variety of fillings
DarneA slice with bone, center section of large fish.
DarneA slice of a large fit with an inclusion of the bone of the center section.
DashiJapanese soup stock is made by simmering flakes of dried bonito and pieces of giant kelp.
DashiFlakes of dried bonito simmered to make Japanese soup stock, with pieces of giant kelp added
DaubeFrench culinary term, indicating either a method of cooking or a type of dish.
DaubeFrench culinary term, meaning either a way of cooking or a style of dish.
Deep FryTo cook submerged in hot fat
DeglazeTo dissolve or dilute the concentrated juices in the pan in which meat, poultry, fish, or game has been roasted or braised; the liquid may be stock, wine, cream, or fruit or vegetable juice.
DeglazeDiluting the concentrated juices in the pan where meat, poultry, fish or game is roasted or braised; commonly with stock, wine, cream or juice from fruits or vegetables.
DeglazeSwirling liquid in a saute pan.
Demijohnlarge bottle of basket of local wine.
Demijohna bulging narrow necked bottle that can hold 3 to 10 gallons of liquid, usually kept in a wicker cover.
DenaturationIn a food context, describes what happens to protein as a first result of being heated (or as a result of acidification, or of violet agitation, or of being cooled below a critical temperature.
DenaturationCulinary term, to describe the reaction of protein at the initial process of being heated; or a result of acidification, violet agitation, or being cooled beyond a temperature that is critical
DewberrySmaller fruits with fewer and larger duplets which are covered by a purple bloom.
DewberrySmall fruits with few large duplets, with a purple bloom covering it.
DhalDe- husked and split lentils.
DhansakIndian meat cooked with vegetables and lentils
DhansakIndian dish; meat cooked with vegetables and lentils.
DhenkiFoot-pounder for de-husking paddy
DhoklaMix of Rice flour and besan, fermented overnight with curd and steamed in slabs.
DibsRefers to thick sweet syrup made by boiling down grape juice.
Dibs (Arabic)Sweet, thick syrup made from boiling grape juice.
DiceTo cut into small cubes.
DieteticsStudy of food in promotion and maintenance of health.
DinkelbrotBread made up of 90% coarse meal
DinuguanIt is a stew of meats-variety and otherwise cooked in blood, vinegar, garlic and hot peppers.
Dinuguan (Fillipino)Cooked in blood, vinegar, garlic and hot peppers, a meat stew.
DiplesThin strips of dough tied, folded into bows or loops and deep-fried, then dipped in honey syrup and topped with chopped nuts
DiplesStrips of dough tied, folded into bows or loops, deep-fried, dipped in honey syrup and topped with chopped nuts
DittanderType of herb.
Pepper grass
DittanderType of herb; Pepper Grass
DOCDenominazione di Origine Controllata
DOCGDenominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita
DockThumping or punching into dough with a smooth round, pencil sized stick; thus forming vertical impression and allowing for gases to escape during baking.
DogfishA name given in a loose way to many of the smaller species of shark in many different languages.
DogfishA common name given to the smaller varieties of shark species in different languages.
Doggy bagFood served but not consumed, taken home in a bag.
Doggy bagFood served and packed in a bag, not consumed immediately.
DolmadesServed chilled as an appetizer. Grape leaves (also known as vine leaves) stuffed with rice, pine nuts and herbs and other seasoning.
DolmadesGrape leaves or vine leaves stuffed with rice, pine nuts and herbs and other seasoning.
Domato SoupTomato soup.
DomatoSoupaTomato soup.
Doner kebabThin slices of marinated lamb packed tightly onto a vertical spit to form a solid mass and thus roasted, pieces of meat being cut off the outside as it browns.
Doner kebabThin slices of marinated meat packed on a vertical spit with the help of its fat, forming a big, solid mass. Pieces of meat are shaved down as the outer layer of the meat. Thin slices of marinated lamb packed tightly onto a vertical spit to form a solid mass and thus roasted, pieces of meat being cut off the outside as it browns.
DosaThin Pancakes made with a fermented batter of black gram lentil and rice, in a griddle plate
DosaA rice and lentil pancake, crispy on the surface but slightly spongy inside..
Accompanied with withsambhar and coconut chutney.
DosaThin Pancakes made in a pan, with a fermented batter of black gram lentil and rice
DosaA pancake made from rice and lentil. A crispy outer surface with a slightly spongy texture within; traditionally served with sambhar and coconut chutney.
DotScattering small amount of butter, nuts, chocolate etc., over the surface of the food.
DoughnutA deep fried ball or ring of soft dough, sometimes enriched with eggs, leavened with yeast or baking powder and often sprinkled with fine sugar afterwards.
DoughnutA ball or ring of soft dough deep fried. It can be bettered with eggs, softened with yeast or baking powder, and commonly sprinkled with powdered sugar afterwards.
DowelsHardwood cylindrical without handles used to rolling out dough
DredgeTo coat with crumbs, flour, sugar or corn meal
DrisheenBlood pudding made from beef and sheep blood.
DrumstickPods that are long and have soft inner seeds.
DrupeCategory of fruits having flesh surrounding a single stone which is called a nut if edible. Examples: almond, apricot, cherry, mango, olive, peach and plum.
DrupeA collective category term for fruits with a single stone or seed around the flesh. The stone is called a nut if edible. Example: apricot, almond, cherry, mango.
DuqqaSesame, coriander seeds, cumin, salt, pepper and hazelnuts pounded together.
DuqqaSesame, cumin, salt, pepper, coriander seeds, cumin, salt, pepper and hazelnuts pounded together.
DustingCoating with sprinkling of sugar, spices, flour etc.,
DuxellesChopped mushrooms sauteed in butter with onions, shallots and flavoured with herbs.
Duxelles (French)Onions and shallots in butter used to Sautee chopped mushrooms, flavored with herbs.
Egg slicerA tool designed to cut perfect slices of hard boiled eggs with thin wires.Its has a slotted base to hold the egg and a hinged plate of wires or blades that can be closed to slice the egg.
Egg slicerA tool with thin parallel wires to provide perfectly sliced hard-boiled eggs. A slot for the egg to be held, and another plate with the wires are hinged to it, that slices the eggs as you close the plate
EmpanadaVarious food items are covered with bread dough and cooked..
EmpanadaFood items covered with bread dough and then cooked.
EmulsionNot a mixture but a blend of two liquids usually with different consistency where one forms tiny droplets which are evenly dispersed in the other.
EmulsionA blend of two liquids with different consistency where tiny droplets are formed, and evenly dispersed in the other, unlike a mixture.
EmusionBlending of two immiscible liquids
En PapilloteCooking food in its own vapour by using aluminum foil or leaf
EnokitakeA convex cap long thin mushroom
EnsaimadaA sweet, airy yeast bun of Majorca made with the pork lard of highest quality
Ensaimada (Spanish)An airy, sweet yeast bun made containing the highest quality of pork lard. Originated in Majorca.
EpazoteMexican herb, with a very strong flavor.
Older leaves have a strong flavor and younger ones have mild flavor.
EpazoteMexican herb, with a very strong flavor.
The intensity of the flavor increases with age.
EpicureIn the Food and Beverage context, best food and wine
It is a term derived from the Greek philosopher Epicures.
EscabecheFried fish or chicken marinated with vinegar, other ingredients and served cold.
EscabecheServed cold, fried chicken or fish which has been in marination in vinegar.
EtameCone shaped strainer with a fair and soft mesh
ExplorateurFrench triple creme cheese.
Made in a thick disc shape and has a white bloom on its rind.
Has a creamy texture and flavor.
ExplorateurFrench triple creme cheese. Made in the shape of a thick disc shape and a white bloom on its rind. Has a creamy texture and flavor.
ExtractsConcentrated flavorings derived from an ingredient.
ExtractsConcentrated flavorings extracted from an ingredient.
FadgeMashed boiled potatoes, flour and seasoning, made into round cakes and grilled.
FadgeGrilled round cakes made from mashed potatoes, flour and seasoning.
FaggotA mixture of pork offal- liver, lungs, spleen etc.
FajitasCut of meat into strips
FakkesA lentil soup in tomato base.
FalafelPatties made from chickpeas, onion, garlic, parsley, coriander, cumin, flour, salt and pepper.
FalafelChickpeas, onion, garlic, parsley, coriander, cumin, salt, flour, pepper mixed and made into patties, deep fried and commonly served with pita bread.
FaloodaA cold dessert popular in India, made from mixing rose syrup, vermicelli, sweet basil seeds, and pieces of jelly with milk, often topped off with a scoop of ice cream.
FarfalleBow-shaped pasta.
FarlBread similar to French baguette
FasolathaTomato based navy bean soup
FatAny cooking medium like ghee, butter and the hydrogenated oils.
FatoushLebanese salad of garden greens, cheese and tossed bread croutons
FattoushCubed cucumber, tomato, iceberg, onion and herbs with vinaigrette
FeculaGeneral term for a starch which has been rendered more or less pure by washing in water, as opposed to flour or farina, which contains protein and other substances from the original plant.
Most ordinary starches such as tapioca and corn flour are feculas.
FeculaCommon name for starch that has been made more or less pure by washing in water instead of flour or farina; which contains protein and other substances from the origin plant.
Common starches like tapioca are fecula.
FejioadaSliced meats with a platter with side dishes of beans, rice, kale, etc
FeniDistilled liquor made from the fruits of cashew.
FermentationThe process of sugar and starches acting in the dough to produce carbon dioxide gas and alcohol, resulting in expansion of the dough.
FesenjanPersian poultry or meat balls stew made from pomegranate juice and walnuts.
FesenjanStew contain Persian poultry or meatballs, with pomegranate juice and walnuts.
FetaA Greek cheese. Feta is traditionally made from sheep's milk or sheep's and goat's milk mixed. It is made in large blocks which are salted, sliced and salted again and packed into containers in which the cheese matures for about a month in the salty whey.
FetaA Greek cheese. Traditionally made from either a mixture of the milk of goat and sheep, or exclusively from sheep's milk. It's formed in large blocks and then salted and sliced; and salted again before it is packed in containers. The containers help the cheese mature, for a month in the salty whey.
FibreA term for the indigestible constitutes of food. Among the most important of these is what is called roughage. It is primarily carbohydrate.
FibreThe indigestible constitute of food. The most important of these are roughage, which is mostly carbohydrates.
FIFOFirst in First out
Figgy puddingA steamed or baked pudding made from figs, apples, carrots, breadcrumbs, flour, butter, eggs and brown sugar.
Figgy puddingA pudding made by baking or steaming figs, apples, carrots, breadcrumbs, flour, butter, eggs and brown sugar.
Fines herbesFrench term for a mixture of chopped fresh culinary herbs.
Fines herbesMixture of chopped fresh culinary herbs; French.
Finger limeIt is the fruit of a shrub or small tree found in the rainforest regions of North-East Australia. It belongs to the citrus family. The near cylindrical fruits are about 6cm long and may remain green even when ripe.
Finger limeFruit found in the shrub found in the rainforests of North-East Australia. A part of the citrus family; these fruits are cylindrical shape at about 6 centimetres long, and happen to remain green ever after ripening.
FinikiaAlso known as Melomakarouna. Oblong, honey-dipped cookies coated with chopped nuts
Finikia or MelomakarounaOblong, honey-dipped cookies covered with chopped nuts
FisnoggeJewish calf's foot jelly.
Five grains of chinaThe 'five grains' are
Chi (setaria millet)
Shu (panicum millet)
Tao (rice),
Mai (wheat and barley)
Shu (legumes).
Five grains of ChinaThe 'five grains' are:
Chi (setaria millet); Shu (panicum millet); Tao (rice); Mai (wheat and barley); Shu (legumes)
Five spiceA Chinese ground spice mixture that consists of star anise, fennel, cloves, cassia (Chinese cinnamon) and Sichuan pepper.
Five spiceStar anise, fennel, cloves, cassia (Chinese cinnamon) and Sichuan pepper mixed to form a ground spice mixture
FlanAn open short-crust pastry or sponge case containing a filling (sweet or savoury).
FlanA pastry with an open crust, or a sponge case with a filling that could be sweet or savoury
FlatbreadA flat circular bread
FlautasStuffed, rolled deep fried tortillas.
Floating islandA cold dessert consisting of round, flattish, baked meringue 'island' floating on a sea of custard.
Floating islandA dessert made of an 'island' that is a round, baked meringue that is 'flat', on a 'sea' of custard
FlorentineA dish containing spinach.
A dish garnished with spinach.
FlorentineA dish containing spinach.
FlummeryA dish made by soaking fine oatmeal in water for a long time and then boiled and stirring the liquid until it is almost solid.
FlummerySoaking fine oatmeal in water for a length of time, and stirring it while boiling until the liquid has almost been solidified
FocacciaA flat bread topped with different herbs
FocacciaOnion and olive bread
Foie grasGoose or duck liver pate
FoiegrasGoose or duck liver pate.
FoldTo mix two or more ingredients together with a cutting and folding motion.
FondantA mixture of sugar, water and glucose boiled to the soft-ball stage.
FondantA mixture of sugar, water and glucose boiled to the texture of a soft-ball.
FondueThe French for melted, is the name of a Swiss dish made of melted cheese.
FondueFrench for melted; Swiss dish made from melted cheese.
Foo-FooThe most common name for the starchy pastes popular in most of W. Africa may be made from any fibrous vegetable.
Foo-Foo is made from Yam, Plantain, Cassava, Taro, Sweet Potato or Maize.
Foo-FooWidely used as the name for a starchy paste. Popular in West Africa, it can be made from any fibrous vegetable.Foo-Foo is made from Yam, Plantain, Cassava, Taro, Sweet Potato or Maize.
FoolA simple mixture of mashed fruits, raw or cooked as appropriate with whipped cream.
FoolA blend of mashed fruits that may be raw or cooked accordingly, and whipped cream.
FougasseBread sculpted in the shape of an ear of wheat.
FoulArabic rice and bean stew dressed with olive oil and lemon juice.
FourmeA French word for mould (in the sense of a shaping mould, not a micro organism) appears in the name of some cheese molded to shape.
FourmeFrench for mould (the shape); appearing as the name of some cheese that are moulded to shape
FraiseA medieval term referring to something of the general nature of pancake made with batter and fried.
FraiseA medieval term for something in the nature of a pancake that has a batter which is fried
FrangipaneA custard tart flavoured with pounded almond and pistachio.
FrangipaneA custard tart flavoured with ground almond and pistachio.
FreekehRoasted green wheat, a specialty of Arab countries.
Freekeh (Arabic)Roasted green wheat, a specialty of Arab countries.
French breadIs made mainly with soft wheat. It absorbs less water, giving a drier loaf and raises less. It is not meant to be buttered.
French breadMade mainly with soft wheat. It's drier as a result of lesser water absorption, and is less raised. French bread is not meant to be buttered
FriandisesWord meaning delicacy
Usually a small item of sugar confectionery or a little cake served after the meal along with the coffee and eaten with the fingers.
Friandises (French)Word meaning delicacy. Usually a small confectionary or a little cake that is served after a meal; commonly with coffee, meant to be eaten with the fingers
FricandeauSlices of meat fried or braised with a sauce.
FricasseeFricassee- A white light stew made with meat or poultry or game or vegetable.
FricasseeA light, white stew that can be vegetarian or non-vegetarian
Frigate mackerelAlso known as 'bullet mackerel' - from the tuna family
Frigate mackerelMember of the Tuna Family; Also known as 'bullet mackerel'
FrittataIt is cooked on one side and flipped over so both the top and the bottoms are golden brown.
FrittataCooked on one side and then tossed over so both the top and the bottoms are of a golden brown.
FritterFood item coated in batter and deep fried.
Fromage fraisA smooth, light, white cheese, that is slightly fermented with varying fat content.
FromagefraisA fresh creamy, smooth white cheese, lightly fermented and of varying fat content sometimes almost pouring.
FrumentyPorridge made from wheat, the name is derived from the classical Latin Frumentummeaning corn.
FrumentyWheat porridge, the word is of classical Latin origin, Frumentum meaning corn.
FrybreadFlat dough leavened with yeast or bicarbonate of soda, deep or shallow fried in oil or shortening.
FrybreadCooking in hot fat.
FudgeA grainy textured sweetmeat made from sugar, milk and butter boiled to the soft ball stage and then beaten up.
FudgeA sweetmeat made from sugar, milk and butter, that is boiled to a soft ball texture and beaten up. Grainy in texture
FuguJapanese delicacy, name for some species of blowfish.
FuguJapanese delicacy, name for some species of blowfish.
FumetReduction of cooking liquor of fish or vegetable stock.
FunnelA funnel is used to transfer large amounts of liquids from a bigger container to smaller ones like bottles. They avoid spillage.
FunnelA conical device ideal to transfer large amount of liquids to smaller containers, to avoid spillage
GalaktobourekoPhyllo filled with custard sauce and topped with a light honey/sugar syrup
GalaktobourekoPhyllo stuffed with custard sauce and topped with a light honey/sugar syrup
GaletteA cake made with potatoes/ rice.
GardumbaLamb intestines rolled into a sausage
Garlic pressA garlic press is a piece of kitchen equipment that crushes garlic efficiently by forcing them through a small grid of holes. They are a quick alternative to mincing garlic with a knife.
Garlic pressKitchen equipment that crushes garlic optimally by pushing them through a small mesh of holes. A more efficient alternative to mincing garlic with a knife, and also retains the oil
GarnishTo decorate the food
GazpachoGazpacho is a soup made of raw blended vegetables and served cold, originating from the southern Spanish region.
GelatoItalian Ice Cream usually prepared from egg based custard using whole milk or cream.
GhantoDifferent vegetables are chopped or grated and then cooked with phoron and other ground spices.
GhantoVegetables chopped or grated with phoron and other ground spices.
GiouvetsiGreek casserole or baked in the oven
GlaceTo coat with a thin layer or sugar syrup
Glace de viandeFrench for 'meat' and Glace means 'to glaze', so the term Glace de viande means glaze the meat
GlazeA polished finish given to dishes by coating with syrup
GlutenA tough elastic protein that gives dough its strength and ability to retain gas.
Glutinous riceSweet, sticky, or waxy rice; broad, short grains in white, brown, or black
GnocchiItalian dumplings made of flour, potato & egg
Gonkura/GonguraTall plant whose leaves are used for chutney & curry.
GrapefruitVery similar to sweetlime, having bitter juice.
Grappastrong digestive wine
GrateTo rub food on a grater and thus break it into tiny pieces.
GrateReducing to small pieces.
GraterA grater is a kitchen utensil with sharp perforations.
Available in different sizes of grating slots and are useful in preparing a variety of dishes.
GraterA grater is a kitchen utensil with sharp perforations. Different sized grating slots are useful in preparing a variety of dishes
GratinateGrilling under the dry heat
GravyDeriving juice from vegetables during and after cooking.
GribhicheCold sauce made with chopped hard boiled eggs, herbs, onion & capers.
GriddleCooking on Heavy cooking surface.
GrillCooking in open fire.
Grill panA heavy metal pan used to grill foods.
GrindTo rub something until it becomes powder (eg. in the mixer).
GuacamoleFresh salsa made from avocados, chopped tomatoes, sour cream, lime juice and peppers.
Gugelhupf PanWhite pan with round bottom and decorative pattern on the sides
Gulab JamunKhoya & paneer dumplings deep fried till dark brown and soaked in sugar syrup.
GyroThin slices of meat are seasoned with herbs and spices and served in sandwich form in pita bread along with tomatoes and onions.
GyroSeasoned slices of meat seasoned served in pita sandwich form along with tomatoes and onions.
HACCPHazard Analysis Critical control Point
HalalFood processed / cooked as per Islamic dietary laws.
HallullaStaple in Chilean sandwiches, a flat round bread baked with fat.
HaloumiMade from sheep's milk, a semi soft and not very salty cheese.
HandiA utensil used in Indian cooking. Usually made of brass and coated with tin, the handiis deep and its neck is narrower that its base.
HandiAn Indian cooking utensil. Primarily made of brass with a tin coating, the handi has a narrow neck with a base that is wider than the neck
HaramFood that are prohibited as per Islamic dietary laws.
HardebroodTwo layered dry flatbread. Each layer is as thick as a pancake, and is connected at the dents.
HardtackA basic cracker or biscuit made with flour and water.
Haute cuisineMeans superior cooking, the finest quality of food served in an elegant and elaborate manner
HearthThis is the flour of the deck oven.
Hickory woodKing of barbeque wood that is strong and hearty; perfect for pork shoulder and ribs; enhances any red meat or poultry.
HimbashaFlavored with ground cardamom, a slightly sweet bread.
HoecakeMade from white or yellow cornmeal and mixing it with salt and hot water or milk. The cornmeal gruel is fried, and sometimes sweetened.
HojasDried cornhusk used as a raping for tamales.
HominyMaize treated with lye
Horiatiko PosmiBread made from cornmeal and whole meal flour.
HoriatikoPosmiBread made from cornmeal and whole meal flour.
Hors d'oeuvreAppetizers; small savory tidbits hot or cold, meant as starters.
HuachinangoRed snapper
HummusA dip made with chick peas, tahini, olive oil, garlic and lemon.
HummusLevantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic
HushpuppyDeep fried or baked corn meal dough dumplings.
IcingProcess of covering with sugar or the coating itself.
IdiappamString hoppers made with rice flour are served with coconut milk/kormas/gravy curry/chutneys
IdiappamStrings of rice flour served with coconut milk/kormas/gravy curry/chutneys.
Idi-appamFine noodle of a mash of rice grits.
IdliSteamed cakes made from rice and black gram lentil batter
IdliA round, white, steamed cake, made from rice grit & urad dal, ground together and kept overnight for fermentation.
InfusionSteeping into aromatic liquid.
Insalata mistawild young lettuce leaves of different shapes and colors topped with a vinaigrette dressing
Insalatamistawild young leaves of many shapes and colors of lettuce served with a vinaigrette dressing
JamaicaRed hibiscus flower for flavouring.
JhalThis is used to cook meat. The meat is first fried lightly and then cooked in a light sauce of ground chillies, mustard and panchphoran.
JhalLightly fried meat, tossed with a light sauce of ground chillies, mustard and panchphoran.
JholA stew -the fish, meat or vegetable is prepared in a stew kind of preparation and served with rice. Jhol preparations are usually made during summers as it is very light on palate and also very nutritious.
JholMeat prepared in a stew kind of preparation and served with rice.
JholiGravy made from curd and is thick in consistency.
JicamaRoot vegetable.
JohnnycakeFried cornmeal gruel, made from white or yellow cornmeal mixed with salt and hot water or milk, and sometimes sweetened.
JowarType of grain like wheat.
Juniper BerriesBluish black aromatic berries found dried and are bitter to eat raw.
JusRoast gravy diluting with water or wine
KadaiAn iron utensil of Indian origin resembling a wok. Used to cook food with minimal water, or ideally to deep fry as well
KadaifShredded dough filled with chopped nuts and cinnamon and topped with honey/sugar syrup
KadaifShredded dough stuffed with chopped nuts and cinnamon and tossed in honey/sugar syrup
KadhaiTraditionally made of iron, a kadhai is an Indian wok that is used to cook food with little or no water at all. They are also ideal for deep frying.
KadhiSpiced and diluted curd mixed with besan. Sometimes deep fried pulse ball added.
KafuliThick gravy based preparation made from green leafy vegetables.
KafuliThick gravy made from green leafy vegetables.
KahwaAromatic Kashmir tea with cardamoms and almonds brewed in a samovar.
Kalamata OlivesAlmond shaped Greek olives
KaliaRich preparation of vegetables, fish or meat. Gravy is made using onion paste, ginger garlic paste, tomato puree and garam masala cooked in a lot of oil and ghee or clarified butter.
KaliaVegetables, meat and fish made using onion paste, ginger garlic paste, tomato puree and garam masala cooked in a lot of oil and ghee.
KappaDish of spinach cooked in curd. It is flavoured using different spices and rice paste is added to it to give it a thick consistency.
KarelaBitter Gourd
KaridopitaAlmond and walnut dark cake topped with a light honey/sugar syrup
KaridopitaAlmond and walnut dark cake topped with light honey/sugar syrup
KassaMeat is first grilled in mixture of spices like onion, ginger, garlic, chilli powder, turmeric powder and cumin powder and then put into a thick gravy.
KassaMeat, first grilled with spices like onion, ginger, garlic, chilli powder, turmeric powder and cumin powder, and then put into a thick gravy.
KasseriCreamy farm cheese.
KasseriFarm cheese, creamy in texture.
KefalotyriA mild cheese made from sheep's or cows milk.
KefteidakiaFried beef meatball
KhandSugar in the form of large crystals, also called misri.
KhandsariWhite or dark brown rosk sugar or Khand.
Khas KhasPoppy seed
KheemaMinced meat (lamb or chicken)
KhoyaDried, concentrated milk
KibbehGround meat mixed with bulger wheat and cooked in oval-shaped patties or as a large cake.
Kitchen shearsKitchen shears are scissors that are used in the kitchen to cut dry fruits, snip herbs and trim the fat from poultry and meat. ‰ÛÓ to trim fat from poultry and meat.
Kitchen shearsScissors that are intended to be used in cooking processes like to trim the fat from poultry and meat, to snip herbs, to cut dry fruits, etc
KneadWork the mixture in dough.
Kolokithia gemistaGreekZucchini full of ground beef, rice and avgolemono sauce
KolokithiagemistaGreekZucchini stuffed with ground beef, rice and served with avgolemono sauce
KolokithokeftedesZucchini fritters
Kopanisti Mykonou (Greek)Salty and spicy cheese made from cow or sheep's milk or made by using both.
KopanistiMykonouCheese made from cow or sheep's milk or made by using both. It is salty and spicy in taste. The process of coagulating milk is same as is used for preparing Feta with only difference being that the period for coagulation is longer.
KormaCooking meat or chicken in a mild yoghurt based sauce and ghee.
KosherFoods that meet the requirements of a strict set of dietary rules laid out in Jewish law.
Kosher MeatsSlaughtered to comply with religious laws, where the animals must be killed with a single stroke of a knife and then fully bled. All the veins and arteries must be removed from the meat
KOTKitchen Order Ticket
KotosoupaChicken soup topped with a creamy lemon sauce.
KoulourakiaGolden coloured , crisp, cookies covered with sesame seeds
KoulourakiaGolden colour crisp, cookies coated with sesame seeds
Kounoupidi TiganitoBatter fried Cauliflower
KounoupidiTiganitoBatter fried Cauliflower
Kourabiedesbutter cookies topped with powdered sugar
Kourabiedesbutter cookies tossed with powdered sugar
KremithosoupaA clear onion soup
KugelhupfYeast dough, soft in texture. Contains raisin, almonds, kirschwasser cherry brandy, some dough also with candied fruits, sometimes filled often with layer of sweetened ground poppy seeds.
KulfiAn ice cream made of condensed milk, dried nuts and saffron
KuzambuA gravy dish that has vegetables and/or lentil stewed with spices, with or without coconut milk.
KuzhambuA gravy dish that has vegetables and/or lentil, spices, with or without coconut milk.
LachanodolmadesCabbage leaves stuffed with beef, rice and served with avgolemono sauce
LachanodolmadesCabbage leaves filled with beef, rice and served with avgolemono sauce
LadduIndian sweet made with thick jaggery or sugar syrup.
LadleA ladle is type of serving spoon. It has a long handle and a deep cup shaped bowl. It is ideal for serving or transferring liquids like soups, stews and sauces from a pot to a bowl.
LadleA type of spoon used to serve. A long handle and a deep cup shaped bowl makes it ideal to use to serve soups, stews and sauces
LesuMade by stuffing Madua flour into a dough made from wheat flour and a lot of ghee or clarified butter is applied to it while erving.
LesuMadua flour stuffed in dough made from wheat flour, and a lot of ghee is applied to it while serving.
LIFOLast In first out
Lime creamSour cream.
LitchiSpiny red fruit with sweet pulpy aril.
Loaf panA loaf pan is a narrow rectangular mould that is used for baking breads and meatloaves.
Loaf PanA narrow rectangular mould or tray, used to bake breads and meatloaves.
LoinA joint of lamb, veal, pork or mutton that includes some of the ribs.
LoquatYellow-orange fruit, popular in China & Japan.
LoukoumadesDeep-fried honey balls topped with honey.
LoutzoukaxiaVariation on lentils.
Madua ki RotiChapatti or roti made from a cereal called Madua.
Maduaki RotiChapatti or roti made from a cereal called Madua. It is considered very healthy.
MagretBoneless duck breast, cooked rare like a steak with the skin along with fat still attached.
MahashaliBuddhist era's pulpy quality rice.
MahuaTree whose fruits contain high sugar level, used for alcohol production
MaizDried corn
MakkiCoarsely ground flour of Maize.
Mandoline cutterSlicer with adjustable lever for different thicknesses. It is used to cut slices of various thicknesses, juliennes, gaufrettes and batonnet
ManouriMade from sheep's or goats milk whey, a soft unsalted cheese.
ManouriMade from sheep's or goat's milk whey, a soft unsalted cheese.
MantouMilled wheat flour, water and leavening agents made into a bread.
Maple WoodMildly smokey and sweet wood for poultry, ham, and vegetables.
MarathopsomoFennel flavoured bread
MaridesFried white bait
MarkookA flatbread baked in a dome or a convex metal griddle.
MarmiteFrench dish or earthenware covered pot
MarraquetaMade with flour, salt, water and yeast, commonly found in Chile.
MasaCorn dough used for tortillas, tamales and other dishes. Corn kernals cooked with lime and pounded in a stone grinder
Masala VadaMix of lentils, onion, green chilies, fresh coriander leaves and garlic ground coarsely, made into fritters and deep fried
Masala VadaLentils, onion, green chillies, fresh coriander leaves and garlic ground tossed together into fritters and deep fried
MasherUsed for mashingfood items such as boiled potatoes.
MasherUsed for mashing food items such as boiled potatoes.
MasoorPink color lentils
Massa SovadaRound shaped bread combining milk, sugar or honey
MattarGreen Peas
MatzoA Jewish tradition during the passover holidays where they consume this unleavened bread.
Maze/MezzoSnacks or appetizer in
Measuring spoonsMeasuring spoons are those which are used to measure small amounts of ingredients such as oils, spices and other powders. The most commonly used sizes are the teaspoon and tablespoon.
Measuring SpoonsSpoons of various sizes which are used to measure small amounts of ingredients. Universally used sizes are the tablespoon and the teaspoon
Meat malletA meat mallet is a handy tool that is used to pound the surface of the meat and tenderize it.
Meat malletA handy tool used to tenderize the meet by pounding the surface.
Meat thermometerUsed to measure the internal temperature of meat and poultry especially in dishes like steaks and roast. They are also the most reliable and accurate way of determining if a roast is cooked through or not.
Meat thermometerUsed to measure the internal temperature of meat and poultry especially in dishes like steaks and roast. One of the more reliable ways of knowing the level to which the food has been cooked
MeenTamil term of Fish
MelitzanosalataEgg plant puree
Melizana papoutsakaEggplant stuffed with ground beef with tomato sauce and cheese
MelizanapapoutsakaEggplant stuffed with ground beef with tomato sauce and cheese
MelogaraA savoury of various lentils and vegetables
MelomakarounaOblong, honey-dipped cookies covered with chopped nuts
Melon ballerA small spoon like tool that scoops melon into perfect balls.
Melon BallerSimilar to a scooper for ice cream, A melon baller takes the flesh of a melon to form perfect balls
MelonpanBread that looks like a rock melon, with a n enriched with a layer of crisp cookie dough.
Mesquite woodA wood with a smoke that turns from tangy to bitter over an extended cooking time.
MezethesSmall savory appetizers
MezzeA small dishes served as appetizers in the Middle East.
MichettaA hollow or bulgy Italian white bread.
Minestronetomato based vegetable and pasta soup
Misti DolSweet Yoghurt from Bengal.
Mixing bowlA deep bowl for mixing ingredients together.It should have enough high sides to prevent splattering when hand held blenders are used.
Mixing bowlA deep bowl that is used to mix ingredients together; with high sides to avoid splattering and spilling in the process.
MizithraSoft and hard varieties; made from sheep's or goats milk whey
MizithraSoft and hard varieties of food; made from sheep's or goat's milk whey
MoleSalsa made from a paste of chilies, peppers, pimentos, avocados, chocolates and other ingredients
MollieCoconut flavored thin fish curry from Kerala.
Molocajete and TojoloteMexican mortar and pestle made from heavy black basalt.
Monkey breadCinnamon sprinkled soft bread
Monkey DishRumoured to be a bowl the size a monkey would use or originally made from a monkey's skull or a shallow bowl the size of a monkey's hand
Monte Biancodessert consisting of chestnut puree, cream and Strega.
Monte Biancodessert consisting of chestnut puree, cream and Strega
MorelMushrooms having a honeycomb design with conical cap typically very strong in flavor, sold dry.
Morel DustA powder obtained from ground morels
Mortadellalarge smooth textured sausage prepared from pork, fats and spices.
MortadellaBig portion of smooth textured sausage made from pork, fats and spices.
Mortar & pestleThe mortar is a deep heavy bowl with rounded edges to prevent spillage while pounding and the pestle is a heavy club shaped object whose head is used to crush or pound various herbs and spices - helps to release the most flavors from herbs and spices.
Mortar & pestleThe mortar is a deep, heavy bowl with rounded edges; that avoids spilling while pounding with the pestle, that is a heavy club shaped object, with the head being used to crush or pound herbs and spices, to release the flavor from them
MoussakkaLayers of vegetables tossed with concasse, grilled eggplant, tomato puree and cheese .
MoussakkaLayers of variety of vegetables tossed with concasse, grilled eggplant, tomato puree and cheese
MSGMono Sodium Glutamate
MuffinA quick bread, similar to cupcakes.
MughalThe cuisine of Northern India, which is heavily influenced by Persian cooking.
MulligatawnyLentil based soup in the style of Indian cooking
MungGreen gram lentils
MurahbbaFruits prepared with spiced, thick sugar syrup and preserved.
Murmura/MuriPuffed rice.
MurukkuSouth Indian crisp coil shaped snacks made from rice & lentils
MurukkusThese little spirals of fried rice dough are snack items that are popularly eaten along with tea/coffee
MurukkusSnacks shaped as spiral fried rice dough that can be eaten along with tea/coffee
Muscovite duckA breed of duck
Muslin clothLoosely woven carded cotton yarns and are unbleached and white in colour. Used for fine straining.
Muslin clothUnbleached cotton yarns loosely woven together, used to strain finely.
MutableFried eggplant dish made with tomatoes, garlic, olive oil, cumin, paprika and parsley
MuttonGoat Meat
Mysore PakSweet made with ghee and thick sugar syrup with Roasted Bengal gram flour.
NachosCrispy fried corn chips.
NageA highly flavored, concentrated fish stock
NgomeGround millet, water and vegetable oil made to form a flatbread.
NicoiseIn the style of Nice (France).
NisiotikiA vegetable and sea food soup
NopalesPrickly pear cactus.
NozzleIt is a small conical tool used to force out pulp into various shapes. They came in various shapes such as star, ribbed and plain ones.
NozzleApplying or filling pulp or cream to various shapes with the help of a conical tool with a variety of shaped tips like star, ribbed or plain ones
Oak woodThe most versatile of hardwoods; blends with a wide range of flavours.
Ombre biancoglass of white wine
Ombre rossoglass of red wine
Ombrebiancoglass of white wine
Ombrerossoglass of red wine
Organic FoodFood created without the help of any chemicals including synthetic fertilizer, pesticide or germicide.
Organic FoodNaturally grown food. Grown without using fertilizers, pesticides herbicides, hormones and medication or antibiotics, and are stored without using any chemicals or preservatives
OrzoTiny melon seed-shaped pasta
OrzoSmall melon seed-shaped pasta
Osso Buccoan Italian dish made of shin of veal, tossed with wine, garlic, onion and tomato
OssoBuccoknuckle of veal, sauteed and then stewed with garlic, onion and tomato
OuzoAnise flavoured colorless alcoholic drink.
OuzoGreek.Anise flavoured colorless alcoholic drink.
Pain de mieA sliced, packaged bread
Pan BroilCooking in a dry heat (vessel)
Pan de PascuaA sweet bread, spongy in texture. Contains ginger, honey, candied fruits alongside raisings and nuts. A Christmas tradition.
PanbriocheSimilar to brioche
PancakeMade from starched base butter, a thin round flatbread.
PanchphoronFenugreek seed, nigella seed, cumin seed, black mustard seed and fennel seed in equal quantity.
PandesalA round bread made with flour, eggs, yeast, sugar and salt
PandoroAn Italian tradition, sweet yeast bread served with Vanilla icing sugar.
Pane di AltamuraMade from durum flour
Pane ticineseBread dough made of white flour, yeast, salt, oil and water
PanettoneA round fruitcake leavened with yeast, and baked in a tubular mould to give it height.
PanfocacciaSimilar to focaccia.
PaniyaramSweet or savoury mini cakes are made with rice flour and lentil. Cooked in a mould somewhat like a mini muffin tray
PaniyaramIndian dish made by steaming a rice flour and lentil batter using a mould.
PapadumServed with a meal or as an appetizer, Thin and crisp, similar to a cracker.
PapdiCrispy deep-fried wafers made from refined flour, cumin and fenugreek.
PappadamFried disks made with black gram or rice flour that are served with meals
PappadamFried, round disks made with black gram or rice flour
ParboilTo cook partially in a hot liquid
ParchingGrain drenched in water, baked in hot sand and pounding it in a mortar to make it flat.
ParcookTo cook partially
PareveIn Jewish dietary law, a food that contains neither meat nor dairy.
ParingRemoving skin of fruit and vegetables.
Paring knifeA paring knife is a small sharp knife with a short blade which is ideal for removing the skin of fruits and vegetables.
Paring knifeA sharp knife with a short blade, commonly used to remove the skins of fruits and vegetables
Parisienne scoopThe parisienne scoop also known as a melon baller is a tool that is used to scoop out uniform spheres of fruits, vegetables and icecreams.
Parisienne scoopAnother name for a melon baller, used to make perfect balls out of fruits, vegetables and Ice Cream
ParwalTender spherical gourd.
Pasta FloraLattice-topped tart filled with apricot puree
PastitsioFlat pasta with ground meat, cheese, macaroni and is covered with bechamel sauce.
PastitsioFlat pasta with ground meat, cheese, macaroni; covered with bechamel sauce.
PatatosalataPotato salad
Pate MaisonFrench term. 'Maison' means 'house', a dish made in restaurant own style.
PayasamA sweet dish made with rice and/or lentils and milk that may be sweetened with sugar or jaggery.
PayasamSweet, made with rice and/or lentils, milk, sugar or jaggery.
Pecan woodA mellow version of hickory with a subtle richness of character
PecorinoAn Italian cheese made with sheep's milk; aged, white to pale yellow and have a sharp flavor. Its American counterpart is made from Goat's milk.
PeniaMade from sugar, butter, eggs, anise seeds and lemons.
PescadosFish and shell fish.
PFAPrevention of food Adulteration
PhaanuIt is made from lentils. The lentils are soaked in water for about 4 to 6 hours before cooking and it is used making different types of lentils.
PhaanuIt is made from lentils and soaked in water for about 4 to 6 hours before cooking.
PhalsaA small, sour, purplish berry.
PhoronTempering, which is used to flavor lentils. Different tempering are used for different lentils.
PhoronTempering to flavor lentils.
PiadinaWhite flour, lard or olive oil made to form a thin bread.
Piatto mistoPlate with a selection of hors d'oeuvres
Piattomistoplate with a selection of hors d'oeuvres
PilafiRice boiled in broth and flavored with onion and spices
PilafiRice boiled in broth and flavored with spices
PiloncilloCoarse sugar.
PincersA tool made of two pieces of metal with blunt concave jaws that are arranged like the blades of scissors, used for gripping and pulling things
Pinot grigiodry white wine, goes well with Venetian cicheti and seafood
Pinot grigioDry white wine
PipianPumpkin seed.
Pizza wheelA pizza wheel is a circular metal blade that has sharpened edges and is fitted to a handle.
Pizza wheelA rotating circular metal blade with a handle. Used to roll along a pizza to cut it.
Pizzaiolafresh tomato sauce flavoured with different herb-coarse consistency.
PizzaiolaFresh tomato sauce tossed with different herbs.
PlantanasBanana like fruit.
PoachTo cook in a moderately hot liquid (80 deg. C)
Polentacorn Meal Paste.
PolentaCorn Meal Paste
PoliA sweet; pan fried pancakes stuffed with moong dal (lentils) paste & jaggery.
Pollo SorpresaBreast of chicken, stuffed with garlic butter, covered with breadcrumbs, rolled and deep-fried
PolloSorpresabreast of chicken, filled with garlic butter, coated with breadcrumbs, rolled and deep-fried.
PongalSweet or savoury, rice and moong dal (lentils)
PoraVegetables are burnt over direct fire, mixed with oil and spices.
PoriyalDry sauteed vegetables, usually tempered with mustard seeds, curry leaves, split washed black gram dal and coconut.
PoriyalDry sauteed vegetables, tossed with mustard seeds, curry leaves, black gram dal and coconut.
Pot holdersPot holders are made of cloth or silicone that are used to lift and handle hot pots, pans and dishes.
Pot holdersPot holders are made of cloth or silicone that are used to lift and handle hot pots, pans and dishes
Potato peelerA potato peeler has a sharp blade that is serrated one one side and plain on the other. They are ideal for peeling the outer skin or peel of potatoes and other vegetables.
Potato peelerA sharp blade with one side serrated. Ideally used to peel the outer skin of potatoes and, other gifts
PotbroodBaked in a cast iron pot with wood coals, Potbrood is made with wheat flour and sweetcorn.
PozolePork and hominy dish.
PrasadFood, first offered to God, then served to others
PretzelAlemannic knot-shaped bread, soft or hard.
Primaveravegetable sauce prepared with broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, peas and mushrooms - accompaniment for pasta.
PrimaveraVegetable sauce prepared with broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, peas and mushrooms - accompaniment for pasta
ProjaSmall muffins or loaves of cornbread
Prosciuttopopular Italian Ham. First seasoned and salt-cured. Then it's air-dried, pressed, and sold thinly sliced. Normally they are aged between 18 and 24 months
Prosciuttoraw cured Italian ham which is air-dried, pressed, and sold thinly sliced
Proseccosparkling appetitive wine, comes in both dry or medium-sweet
Proseccoglistening appetitive dry or medium sweet wine
ProveAllowing dough to rise until it has increased its bulk to twice of the original size by putting in a warm place.
Psomi Me RiganiOregano feta bread, cut into thick slices, brushed with olive oil and grilled.
PuftaloonTraditionally made from frying in dripping a dough of flour, salt, butter and milk.
PulveriserHeavy duty electrical grinding machine with a very high speed of grinding and breaking down of ingredients to a fine paste/powder.
PumpernickelSlightly sweet rye bread made from coarsely ground rye.
Puran PoliA sweet flatbread filled with chickpea lentil. Cooked in a griddle and served with a butter or ghee garnish.
PureeMass of pulp of vegetables or fruit boiled and passed through a sieve.
PuttuSteamed rice flour in a specially made cylindrical mould
PuttuSteamed rice flour in an especially made cylindrical mould
QUAILA game bird of the partridge family that resembles a small, plump chicken. The flesh is white and delicately flavoured.
QUANDONGAn edible fruit of a species of the sandalwood tree, particularly the Australian variety. Its seeds have medicinal value.
QUARGEL CHEESEAustrian cheese. Skimmed milk cheese flavored with cumin.
QUATREEPICESCloves, ginger, nutmeg and pepper.
QUEIJO PRATO CHEESEBrazilian. Firm with a smoky flavor.
QUENELLESQuenelles are poached dumplings made from forced meat.Seasoned pur?ed fish, veal orpoultry shaped into an oval dumpling; poached in stock or court-bouillon.
QUESDILLASTortilla sandwich with a fillings of vegetables or chicken or meat, cooked on a hot griddle , cut into wedges and arranged.
QUESO ENCHILADO CHEESEMexican cheese, aged and firm; its rind is covered with hot red chili powder.
QUESO FRESCOA Mexican soft white crumbly cheese made from cow's milk.It is mainly sprinkled over food as garnish.
Queso FrescoA Mexican soft white crumbly cheese made from cow's milk.
QUESOANEJOA hard cheese.
QUIBEBEA Brazilian winter squash soup made from pumpkin, onions, tomatoes, garlic and hot peppers.
QUICHESavoury tart with a creamy egg base.
QUICK BREADNorth America Leavened with ingredients other than yeast.
Quick breadLeavened with ingredients other than yeast.
QUINCEA rare Asian fruit tree with beautiful red flowers. The flesh tastes like a cross between an apple and a pear.
QUINOATiny, round, ivory colored grain, when cooked it swells to four times its size and looks like a tiny disk with a C-shaped tail.
QuinoaSmall, round, ivory colored grain, which swells to four times its size and looks like a tiny disk with a C-shaped tail when cooked.
RagiFinger millet. .
RagoutA strongly seasoned dish of small pieces of meat stewed with vegetables.
RaisinBunch of grapes hung in a dark room and dried naturally.
RaithaBeaten curd mix with chopped vegetables
RajahKidney Beans
RamekinsShallow earthenware dishes where single portion dishes are baked and to mould chilled desserts
RamekinsSingle portion dishes served through shallow earthenware
RasamA broth made with tamarind juice, cumin and pepper. It is served with rice but can also be had on its own
RasamA mixture of lentils, cumin seeds, tamarind, pepper corns, tomato and curry leaves made into a soupy texture.
RasamBroth made with tamarind juice, cumin and pepper.
RasogollaIndian dessert made from cottage cheese, dried milk solid (Khoya) and soaked in sugar syrup.
RavaniSemolina cake, normally golden yellow in colour with a light sugar/honey or range-flavored syrup.
RavaniGolden yellow semolina cake topped with a light sugar/honey or different flavored syrup.
RawaGrits of wheat
ReconstituteRestoring to liquid state by any kind of thin liqui; Reheating frozen prepared food.
Red wine treacleStrong flavoured thick syrup made from reducing red wine.
ReduceTo cook and reduce
RefritosRe-fried beans.
RegionaleFrench for dishes belonging to particular region and made in a set style.
RehydrateTo soak a food substance in water, and thus restore the water lost during drying.
RelishSweet and sour mix of fruits or vegetables frequently used as a garnish or condiment
RetsinaWhite or rose wine flavored with pine resin
Rice breadMade from rice flour.
Risotto di pescerice with seafood
Risotto di pesceRice with seafood; Rice with cuttlefish stewed in its ink, local favorite
Risotto di seppierice with cuttlefish stewed in its ink, local favorite
RizogaloRice pudding with a dash of cinnamon on top
RoastTo cook food by surrounding by hot air.
RoeEgg of fish
Rolling pinA rolling pin is a long cylindrical device that is used for rolling out and flattening dough.
Rolling PinA long cylindrical device that is used to roll out and flatten dough.
RouileTraditional addition of fish stew
Rubber scraperMade of rubber, is used to scrape out or remove food from the sides of bowls, pans, jars, spoons etc.
Rubber scraperMade of rubber, is used to scrape out or remove food from the sides of bowls, pans, jars, spoons etc
RugbreadMade of rye and wheat flour or contains up to 1/3 whole rye grains
RusThis dish is exclusive to this Kumaun region and is made with Dal stock. It is eaten along with rice.
RusKumaun region dish made with Dal stock.
SabayonDessert made of whipped eggs, sugar and wine
SabayonDessert made of whipped eggs, sugar and wine.
SaccharimeterMeasures sugar concentration, the name comes from Greek words Sakcharum (Sugar) and metron (measure)
SaccharometerMeasure the desserts of liquid and sugar concentration
SaffronDried stigmas of crocus flowers, collected by hand, one at a time.
SaganakiFried Kasseri cheese
Salpicona mixture of finely diced vegetables or meat
SalsaReferred to as different sauce that are made in Mexican kitchen.
Salsa FrescaReferred to all salsas made from chopped uncooked fresh vegetables
Salsa VerdeGreen sauce. A sauce made of green herbs and seasoning
SaltimboccaLiterally " jump in the mouth" this term generally refers to folded over slice of meat filled with cheese and herbs or other meats that is quickly fried in a pan and eaten piping hot.
SaltimboccaLiterally "jump in the mouth". A dish entailing rolled pieces of veal or poultry cooked with herbs, bacon, and other flavourings
SaluteItalian toast
SamovarSpouted copper or silver urn, used for brewing tea or coffee
SapotaSweet, brown globular fruit
SarsonMustard seeds
SattuRoasted Bengal gram flour.
SattvikModest food that the body needs
Sauce panA sauce pan is a deep pan which has a perfectly flat bottom, round base and straight sides. Used to heat sauces and cook food, such as rice, pasta and soups, on the cook top.
Sauce PanA deep saucepan with a flat bottom, a round base and straight sides. Ideally used to heat sauces and cook food like rice, pasta and soups on a cook top
SaunfFennel seeds.
SauteLiterallymeans to "jump".
To toss the food while cooking in a pan.
SauteLiterally means to "jump". The act of tossing food in a pan
SauteTo stir fry quickly in a small amount of fat.
SauteuseShallow pan with sloping sides
SauteuseA shallow pan with sloping sides.
SautoirRound shallow heavy pan with straight walls & long handle
SautoirA round shallow heavy pan with straight walls & long handle.
SavoiardiLady finger shaped cookies that are used as a base for several Italian desserts.
SavoiardiLady Finger shaped cookies which are the base for many Italian sweets
ScraperUsed to scrap food items off the table or vessel, also used to split bread and pasta dough.
ScraperUsed to scrape food and others off a table or a vessel, also can be used to split bread and pasta dough
Sea SaltSalt produced by evaporating sea water.
SearTo brown the surface quickly on high heat
Shallow FryTo cook in little fat.
ShrikhandSweetened hung curd garnished with saffron and cardamom.
ShuktoBengali Mixed vegetarian dish, bitter in taste, comprising of several veggies, including bitter gourd or neem leaves
SiftTo put dry ingredients through a sieve.
SigdiA small portable iron stove with charcoal or wood as the fuel.
Silicon scrapeMade of silicon, is used to scrape out or remove food from the sides of bowls, pans, jars, spoons etc.
Silicon scrapeA silicon scrape resembles a flatter spoon, used to scrape out food from bowl, pans, jars, etc
SimmerTo cook food gently in a moderately bubbling liquid
SingalAnother sweet item which is made using semolina. It is a popular sweet and is usually made during festivals.
SinghadaWater crop also known as Paniphal.
SingodiSweet item made from a mixture of khoya and coconut. It is wrapped in a leaf from a local plant called Malu.
SingodiSweet wrapped in a Malu leaf and made from a mixture of khoya and coconut.
Sisunaak SaagDish made from green leafy vegetables.
SisunakSaagDish made from green leafy vegetables.
SitaphalCustard apple. A round, green knobbly fruit having many black seeds covered with custard.
SkewersSkewers are thin long pointed rods that are used to hold small pieces of food together. They are flat or square shaped so that the food does not spin. They may be straight or curved in shape. Available both in metal and woodthese are ideal for barbecues and tandoori dishes.
SkewersThin long rods that are pointed at the end, used to hold small pieces of food. Their flat or squared shape avoids spinning of the food. Ideal for barbecues or tandoori dishes, and are available in metal or wood materials
SkilletFlat bottomed frying pan that is used to fry foods or brown them.
Typically a skillet is about 8 to 12 inches in diameter with low sides that flare outside and a long handle.
SkilletA frying pan with a flat bottom; used to fry foods or brown them. Usually 8 to 12 inches in diameter, the low sides flare out and ends in a long handle
SkordaliaGarlic sauce
Slotted spoonsA slotted spoon is a spoon or ladle with holes or gaps in it. This is ideally used when a solid food has to be taken out of a container leaving the liquid or sauce behind.
Slotted SpoonsA slotted spoon is a spoon or ladle with holes or gaps in it. Intended to be used when a solid food is being scooped out of a container, having the liquid portion remaining behind
SlurryA lump-free consistency made by whipping cornstarch or flour into cold water or other liquids
SoffrittoMade from fried vegetables - base for soups.
SoffrittoMade from fried vegetables which is the base for many soups
SorbetFlavored Iced water, served between to large courses of meals.
SorbetFlavored Iced water, served between to large courses of meals..
Sous ChefSecond chef , next to the Executive chef in a hierarchy
Sous ChefSecond chef, next to the Executive chef in a hierarchy .
SoutzoukakaiBeef meatballs baked in the oven
SouvlakiaSkewered food
SpanakopitaPhyllo pastries sheets stuffed with spinach, feta cheese, egg, onion, olive oil , butter and bread crumbs
SpanakopitaPhyllo pastries sheets stuffed with spinach, feta cheese, egg, onion, olive oil , butter and bread crumbs
SpeckendickA pancake made with rye between two iron plates, filled with lard or bacon, and dried sausage and syrup.
SquashEdible gourd which can be cooked and served as a vegetable.
Squid InkThe liquid obtain from squid
SteamTo cook in steam of boiling water.
Steamer basketA steamer basket is used to steam cook food such as rice or fillet of fish.
Steamer basketUsed to steam cook food such as rice or fillet of fish
StewTo cook or simmer slowly for a long time in a covered pan.
StirTo mix two or more ingredients in circular motion.
Stracciatellaclear chicken soup.
StracciatellaClear chicken soup
StrainTo separate liquids from solids through sieve etc.
StrainerStrainers are used to separate solid and liquid foods. The perforations on a strainer are much smaller in comparison to a colander. Usually strainers have a metal or plastic mesh in a crisscross pattern which retains finer food while draining the liquid.
StrainerSimilar to a colander, used to separate solid and liquid foods. The holes or perforations on a strainer are a lot smaller in size compared to a colander. They have a crisscross pattern in metal or plastic to hold food of finer texture while draining the liquid.
StromboilA type of stuffed pizza in which the melted sauce filling flows from the dough similar to the flow of lava from the top of the Stomboil Volcano in Southern Italy.
StromboilA kind of stuffed pizza in which the sauce pours from the dough similar to the flow of lava from the top of the Stomboil Volcano in Southern Italy
SupremeBreast of chicken
SweatTo cook food with or without covering in fat.
SwissingSwissing is a type of braising, where food is repeatedly dredged in the flour and pounded till it is tender
TABBOULEHArabic salad composed of bulger wheat, parsley, mint, and lemon juice dressing.?
TabboulehArabic salad composed of bulger wheat, parsley, mint, and lemon juice dressing.
Table 1
Table d' hoteDenotes the set menu at a fixed price.
TABLE D- HOTEDenotes the set menu at a fixed price...
TABLE D HOTE MENUSA fixed menu usually for a particular meal or occasion.
TABLE D?H?TE MENUSFixed menus usually served for a particular meal or a particular occasion. A choice of dishes may be offered at all courses; the choice and the number of courses will usually limited to two or three.
Table d'hote menusFixed menus usually served for a particular meal or a particular occasion.
TABOULEHBroken wheat and parsley salad with a hint of mint.
TaboulehBroken wheat and parsley salad with a little mint
TACOSThe hand held snack, a folded fried corn tortillas with fillings.
TACOSTortillas are deep fried in such a manner they look like..
TacosHand held snack, folded fried corn tortillas with fillings.
TAFFELOST CHEESENorwegian or Danish dessert cheese, semi - soft, creamy white with a red outer rind, which comes in leaves.?
TaftanBaked in a clay oven, Leavened flour mixed with saffron and a trace of cardamom powder.
TAGLIATELLEVariety of pasta: similar to fettuccine but slightly wider.
TAGLIOLINIVariety of pasta: thin, 2mm-wide ribbon.
TAHINICrushed sesame seed paste.
TahiniCrushed sesame seed paste
TAJIN SAUCETangy and spicy fruit seasoning consisting of chilli peppers, lime and salt used as a condiment with Mexican food.
TAKOBoiled octopus.
TAKO-BIKIBOCHOUsed normally in Tokyo, it has a blunt end and also called an "octopus cutter"?
TALEGGIO CHEESEItalian dessert cheese, pale, smooth, aromatic, with a reddish crust.
TALLEYRAND SAUCEVeloute, white wine finished with cream and Madeira wine, brunoise of carrot,celery, leeks, turnips and truffles.
TAMALESMasda Harina tortillas with lard.A highly spiced Mexican meat dish.
TAMALESChoice of filling surrounded by masa and steamed.
TamalesMasda Harina tortillas with lard.
TAMARINDA sour fruit widely used in Asian cooking.
TamarindA sour fruit widely used in Asian cooking
TANGELOA cross between a tangerine and a pomelo, citrus in nature, with very few seeds.
TANGERINEA thin-skinned citrus fruit, descendant of the mandarin orange.
TANGRI KABABDrumsticks of chicken coated with egg, yoghurt,spices and cashew nut mixture and roasted in Tandoor.
Tangri kababDrumsticks of Chicken tossed in egg, yoghurt, spices and cashew nut mixture and roasted in Tandoor
TANNINSediments in wine.
TANSYTansy is a common perennial aromatic herb native to Eurasia. Its bitter-tasting pinnate leaves are sometimes used medicinally.
TANZAKU-GIRIRectangle cut of vegetables.
TAPENADEThick, pungent paste usually made from different ingredients.
TAPIOCAStarchy substance derived from the root of the "Cassava Plant".
TARAMAFish roe from mullet.
TaramaFish roe from mullet
TARAMOSALATAFish roe spread.
TaramosalataFish roe spread
TARATORBulgarian soup made with cucumber, garlic, dill, walnuts and yoghurt.
TARATOURBread crumbs, garlic, oil and lemon sauce.
TARTSweet or savoury open-faced pie.
TartSweet or savoury open-faced pie
TARTARE SAUCEMayonnaise with onions, herbs, mustard, egg yolks, gherkins, olives, parsley and chives.
TATE-JIOSeawater salting. Fish are salted by placing then in a salt-water bath. The solution should be about the same as seawater. This technique is used for delicate white fish and thinly sliced firm textured white fish.
T-BONE STEAKIndividual portion of the porterhouse steak.
TEA BLENDA standard term used to indicate a mix or 'blend' of various teas to imbue the drink with characteristics like flavour, aroma, colour and strength.
TEEZANBeverage made up of ragi (finer millet) powder , milk, coconut and sugar.
TEFF FLOURThe flour produced by grinding the seeds of the teff, a north African grass cultivated for its seeds.?
TEJPATBay leaf in Hindi.
TejpatBay leaf in Hindi
TELEMI CHEESERumanian origin, where it is made of sheep milk. American cheese of same name is made of cow's milk. Semi soft, much like American Mozzarella.?
TEMPEHFermented soy bean cake used in Indonesian cooking.
TENDERLOINVery tender cut of meat from the loin of the hindquarter.
TEPPANYAKI COOKINGTeppanyaki is a Japanese term for grilling meats and poultry. Grilled meats are very popular in Japan. Each diner gets his or her own small hibachi to individually prepare the meat as preferred. The teppanyaki style of cooking took advantage of the tourist trade. It combined traditional grilling with Western beef cuts to create Japanese steak houses. Diners sit around a large metal griddle to watch an entertaining chef chop, flip and cook beef, chicken, shrimp and vegetables, served with ponzu (a soy sauce-citrus juice sauce).
TEQUILAMexican spirit distilled from the fermented juice of the agave cactus plant. The alcohol content in Tequila ranges from 35% to 50%.
TERRINEAn earthenware casserole. The term is also used for foods, usually pate mixtures prepared and baked in such a dish, as terrine of chicken.
TerrineAn earthenware casserole
also used to refer a food item
TerrineAn earthenware casserole; also used to refer a food item
TETSUNABEJapanese iron boiling pot, comes with a wooden lid and bucket style handles.
TEXTUREA general term for the feel of cheese when touched, tasted or cut.
TEXTURE OF BREADClosely relates to crumb, it describes the texture of the crumb as determined by touching, eating or tasting.
THANDAIA chilled beverage made with milk, sugar, dry nuts, rose petals, saffron, poppy seeds,cardamom and pepper.
ThattaiThese are deep fried disks of a rice flour-based dough
THAWTo remove from freezer and place under refrigeration approximately 18-48 hours. Internal temperature should be above 1 degree Celsius.
THECHWANIMade from radish or potato. In this the vegetables are not cut but crushed into smaller pieces.
THEOBROMINEA dimethyl xanthine found in the cacao plant and therefore in chocolate. It is a caffeinelike stimulant.
THORANSauteed vegetables tempered with grated coconut and mustard seeds.
THOUSAND ISLAND SAUCEHard-boiled eggs, tomato sauce, chopped gherkins, onions, pimentos, olives and paprika powder mixed with mayonnaise.
THYMEThyme has a very strong flavour because of the thymol contained in it. It retains this flavour when dried. Thyme is a good source of iron and is a very popular ingredient in almost all cuisines. It is widely used to flavour meats, stews and soups and goes well with tomatoes, eggs and lamb. Though strong, it blends well with other herbs and spices.
TIA MARIARum, coffee bean and vanilla flavoured liqueur.
TIFFINNormally a light evening snacks or morning breakfast.
TIGER BREADBread made as a white bread bloomer loaf or bread roll, generally used sesame oil and rice paste on surface before baking.
Tiger breadMade as a white bread loaf or a bread roll, usually garnished with sesame oil and rice paste prior to baking.
TIGNARD CHEESEFrench cheese.Firm, blue - veined goat's - milk cheese.
TIJUANA CHEESEMexican. Firm, pale, but with a hot after taste because bits of hot red pepper were added to the curd before aging.?
TIKKACubes of meat or fish or chicken, marinated skewered and roasted in Tandoor.
TILLAMOOK CHEESEAmerican cheese. Type of Cheddar, bright yellow, firm, not flaky. The salt-free variety has an indescribably pungent but not sharp flavor.
TILSITER CHEESEMade originally by the Dutch. Semi firm, with piquant flavor.
TIMBALEA half conical mould of tin in various sizes.
TIN OPENERtin opener
TiramisuA favorite Italian dessert made with cream, coffee and Amaretto
TIROPITAFilo stuffed with layers of feta cheese and egg.
TISANESTisane or ptisan is an exotic word for herbal tea. The herbal plant can be steeped in hot water or the tea can be brewed in a pot with a particular herb for over 12 hours till it acquires its aroma and its flavour.
TO- FUSoya Bean curd.
TOCINOCured ham with added colour.
TODDYFermented sweet sap of Tar or Palmyra palm.
TOFFEESugar, butter and flavourings boiled together and then allowed to cool and harden.
TOFUA low-calorie, high-protein, cholesterol-free food made from curdled soy milk.
TOFURKYMock turkey or a vegetarian alternative to turkey.
TOHEROA SOUPNew Zealand's seafood soup. A Christmas speciality.
TOJOLOTEMexican mortar and pestle made from heavy black basalt.Actually called Molcajete & Tojolote
TOM KHA GAIThai herbed chicken and coconut soup, strong and piquant.
TOM YUM KOONGPiquant Thai hot and spicy shrimp soup with fish sauce, cilantro and lemon.
TOMATILLASGreen tomatoes with husk.
TOMATILLOLooks like a small tomato with a husk.
TOMATO SAUCEmade with skinned, deseeded tomatoes, bacon, vegetables and spices.
Tomatorizo Me Garides KeorkosPrawns tossed with tomato rice and saffron.
TOMME DE CHEVRE CHEESEA small French cheese made from goat's milk.?
TONGSTongs are kitchen equipment that are used to lift or grasp hot foods and to rotate or turn food with delicate precision.
TongsTongs are part of kitchen equipment, to hold and/or lift hot foods, and to rotate it with care and precision
TONNATOcreamy tuna and anchovy sauce.
TonnatoCreamy tuna and anchovy sauce
TOROWhite prime tuna, the fattest cut.
TORTALLONIVariety of pasta: stuffed, cushion-shaped pasta with scalloped edges.
TORTEA rich multi-layered cake made with little or no flour.
TORTELLINIVariety of pasta: shaped around the finger, like a hat with curled edges.
TORTILLASFlat bread made of corn flour, considered to be Mexico's national bread.
TortillasFlat bread made of corn flour
TORTONliqueur flavoured ice cream
TOSCANO CHEESESharp sheep's-milk Italian cheese of the Pecorino family, firm, but soft enough to slice or cut in wedges.?
TOSSTo mix ingredients lightly.
TossTo mix ingredients
TOSTADASHuge bowl shaped deep fat fried tortilla shells.
TOSTADASTortilla shaped like a plate . It is used to serve the main course itself .
TostadesHuge bowl shaped deep fat fried tortilla shells.
TOURNEDOSa small steak from the center of the tenderloin.
Tournedosa small steak from the center of the tenderloin
TrahanaTomato based soup with tiny sour dough balls in it
TRANCHERto carve or slice a food item.
Trancherto carve or slice a food item
TrancherTo carve or slice a food item .
TRANS FATTrans fat is made when hydrogen is added to vegetable oil - a process called hydrogenation. Hydrogenation increases the shelf life and flavour stability of foods containing these fats. Trans fat is formed when food manufacturers turn liquid oils into solid fats like shortening and hard margarine. A small amount of trans fat is found naturally, primarily in some animal-based foods.
TRECCE CHEESEBraided semi soft Italian cheese.
TRIPEThe edible lining of the stomach (beef).
TRIPEL CREME CHEVRE CHEESESoft, ripened, cheese made from goat's milk. The crust (if white) can be eaten, as well as the creamy interior. High in butter fat.
TRIPLE CREME CHEESESoft ripened dessert cheese containing more than 75% butter fat.
TRIPLE SECOrange flavoured liqueur.
TRONCONThick piece of flat fish cut on the bone.
TRONDER CHEESENorwegian, semisoft cheese, mellow, creamy - white color. 45% butter fat content.
TROWELSimilar to a comb and used to produce ribbon sponge shapes and create striped designs..
Trufflea black fungus which grows underground.
TruffleVariety of white or black mushrooms with strong flavour.
TruffleA black fungus which grows underground..
TRUSSTo bind poultry with string or skewers for roasting.
TSUKIGIRICut with a forward thrusting motion.
TSUMA-ORE-GUSHITucked under skewering. This technique is used mainly with thin fillets, which by "tucking" adds height to the fillet.
TUACABrandy flavoured with orange and vanilla.
TUAREG CHEESEUnsalted skimmed-milk cheese made by Berber tribes in Africa.?
TUBETTIVariety of pasta: slightly bent pipe-shaped.
TUNISIAN FIVE-SPICECinnamon, cloves, grains of paradise, nutmeg and peppercorns.
TURKISH COFFEEBoiling powdered roasted coffee with sugar so that the dregs settle.
TURMERICA slightly bitter spice taken from the root of a plant in the ginger family.
TURNEDCut into 3-cm long sections and turned into a barrel shape.
TURNERIt is a wooden or metal spatula that is used to turn or flip foods.
TVPTextured Vegetable Protein derived from soyabeans, oats, etc.
TYRIAGreek Cheeses.
TyriaGreek cheeses
TYROLIENNE SAUCEBearnaise with olive oil instead of butter.
TZATZIKIDip made from yoghurt,cucumber and garlic and is served with pita bread.
TzatzikiDip made from yoghurt, cucumber and garlic and is served with pita bread.
TzatzikiDip churned from yoghurt, cucumber and garlic and served with pita bread.
UKHARussian fish soup flavoured with cinnamon and cloves, preferably cooked on an open fire.
UNERI-GUSHITechnique for skewering fish in a wave form. Applies to ocean fish.
UNISea urchin eggs.
URADBlack gram.
UradBlack Gram
URSULINESName given to chicken or veal quenelles.
USUBAVegetable knives for professional use, have a number of shapes, and the cutting edge is on one side only. It is used for paring vegetables, slicing, chopping & mincing.
USUBA-BOCHOThe vegetable knife commonly used in the home kitchen. Usually black blade.Usuba are vegetable knives for professional use, have a number of shapes, and the cutting edge is on one side only. It is used for paring vegetables, slicing, chopping & mincing.
VACHERIN CHEESESeveral different cheeses fall under this name; it is semisoft.
VadaDeep fried black gram lentil cakes.
VaruvalA dry fried dish (chicken, fish or sauteed vegetables) with onions and spices
VaruvalA dry deep-fried dish (chicken, fish or sauteed vegetables) with onions and spices
VDQSVins Delimite de Qualite Superieure
VEALMeat of the calf up to one year old.
VealMeat of the calf up to one year old
VelouteMother sauce
Blonde roux thickened white stock of chicken, fish, or veal.
VelouteBlonde roux thickened white stock of chicken, fish, or veal.
VENDOME CHEESESoft French cheese, ripened in charcoal or buried in ashes.
VERBENAVerbena is used when fresh, as it loses its flavour when dried. Its leaves are used in cocktails and to add unusual flavours to pork and chicken dishes. It is said that headaches are cured with a dose of verbena tea.
VIERGEOlive oil based sauce made with onion, garlic, tomatoes, fresh basil & coriander leaves.
VINAIGRETTEMixture of oil & acid - usually vinegar & lemon juice, in an approximate ratio of three or four part of oil to one part of the acidic ingredient.
VinaigretteMade by mixing oil with something acidic such as vinegar or lemon juice.
VINEGARA weak solution of acetic acid and water used in pickling, preserving, tenderizing, and to add a sour flavor to foods.
Vol-au-ventPuff pastry in a shell in which prepared food items are served
VSOPVery superior old peg
WACSWorld Association of Chefs Societies.
WADIOther name is bati or bari. Urad dal batter fermented for overnight, make small shape and dried in sun to preserve.
WadiAlso known as bati or bari, it is an Urad dal batter fermented for overnight, made in small shapes and sun dried.
WAKAMIA dried seaweed used in soups.
WASABIKnown as 'Japanese horseradish', the root is used as a spice and has an extremely strong flavour and its stem is pungent. It is dried, powdered and reconstituted with water.
WATER CHEST NUTwater chest nut
WATERZOOIDutch stew made from fish or chicken and vegetables.
WEAK COFFEEIt is a light diluted coffee, where the decoction is made with lots of water and less coffee powder. The use of stale or old coffee powder / liquor, and incorrect grinding of coffee used for the equipment in operation, result in the coffee being weak.
WENSLEYDALE CHEESEEnglish cheese. Firm, flaky, with a thick rind. Superb. Pale color, with a subtly pungent flavor.
WHEAT NOODLESVariety of pasta: long thin strings made from whole wheat flour.
WHEYThin white liquid , the byproduct of yoghurt and milk while making butter or cheese.
WheyA thin white liquid; the byproduct of yoghurt and milk while making butter or cheese.
WhipTo beat rapidly in order to increase volume by combining air.
WhipTo beat rapidly until frothy and thick.
WHISKEY SOUR COCKTAILWhiskey and lime juice.
WHISKYScotland's finest contribution to the world is the malt whisky. Depending on the distillation process it is termed single malt, double malt and so on.?
WHITE BREADBread made from wheat flour.
WHITE CHOCOLATEBlend of sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin and vanilla.?
WHITE PEPPERWhite peppercorn is somewhat less pungent than the black variety. After ripening, its skin is removed and the berry is dried. White pepper is used in light-colored dishes.
WHOLE WHEAT BREADBread made using flour which is partly or entirely made from whole or almost whole wheat grains.
Whole wheat breadBread that is made with flour that is majorly or entirely made from whole wheat grains.
WILTSHIRE CHEESEEnglish Cheddar type, very sharp and crumbly.
WINEAn alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of fresh juice.
WIRE WHISKSeries of metal or stainless steel wires coiled and joined to a narrow long handle. They are used to beat egg whites into meringues and whip cream.
Wire WhiskNumerous metal wires joined coiled and joined together to a narrow, long handle. Best used to beat egg whites into meringues and whipped cream
WISCONSIN LONGHORN CHEESEAn American Cheddar, medium-sharp in flavour.
WOKRound bottomed and has deep slanting sides.
WokRound bottomed kitchen utensil with deep slanting sides.
WON TON SKINPaper-thin round or square sheets of dough made from flour, eggs, and salt. Used as wrappers to make "won tons".
WOO WOO COCKTAILVodka, Peach Schnapps and Cranberry juice.
WORTWort is the sweet, amber extract that is filtered from malt. After malted barley is mashed, wort is extracted from it and used to brew beer.
XANTHAN GUMProduced from the fermentation of corn sugar, it is most commonly used as a stabiliser, emulsifier and thickener in foods such as yoghurt, sour cream and salad dressing.
XNIPEC (MEXICAN)A type of chili sauce.?
YAKHIMutton and yoghurt-based broth flavoured with saffron and spices.
YAKHNIMeat or vegetable stock which is used in pulao.
YAKIDOFUGrilled tofu or soybean curd cake.
YAKIMONOGrilled food, including pan-fried dishes.
YAKITORIAn appetiser from Japan, made with various parts of chicken and vegetables, brushed with soy sauce, speared on bamboo sticks and grilled over charcoal.
YAKONRoot with a crunchy texture which is large, sweet and round.
YANAGI-BABOCHOKnife is pointed & is known as a "Willow leaf blade".
YASSAA Senegalese dish with grilled meat, lemon juice and condiments.
YAUTIARoot looks like a knotted, brown skinned carrot. The flesh can be pink, yellow or cream coloured. The flavor is suggestive of potatoes and beans.
YEASTA substance containing fungus cells used in-raising dough.
YeastRaising dough using fungus cells
YERBA BEUNASpear mint with a strong pungent smell.
YERBA BUENASpear mint.
YORKSHIRE CHEESEEnglish cheese. When young, soft, bland, and creamy. When aged, sharp and zesty. Similar to a ripened Neufchatel.
YOU TIAOChinese doughnut.
YUFKAThin, round, unleavened bread made with, wheat flour, water, table salt.
YufkaWheat flour, water and table salt used to make thin unleavened bread that is round in shape.
YUGAKUParboiling vegetables.
Zabaionemarsala, sugar and egg, whisked into a creamy dessert
ZabaioneA creamy dessert made with marsala, sugar and egg
Zakat(Islamic word) 'Giving' in the literal sense, here used for eating in a same plate and sharing food with others.
ZakuskiNamed after Chef Zakuski. As per this Russian food, hot and cold savouries are served before meals
ZestThe outer rind of citrus fruit
ZesterA zester has a stainless steel rectangular head with five holes that are designed to remove fine shavings of citrus zest when dragged along the surface of the fruit.
ZesterA stainless steel head with five holes. Designed to remove fine shavings of a citrus zest, when it is dragged along the surface of the fruit
ZopfBraided swiss bread with a dough made combining white flour, milk, egg, butter and yeast.
ZwiebackSweetened bread made with eggs, Baked twice to give it it's crispy texture.
Oat branThe outer layers of the oat kernel that are particularly high in soluble fiber; good added to baked goods.
The outer casing of the oat, often used as a high-fiber nutrient supplement. Thought to fight against high cholesterol, oat bran is high in vitamin B-1 and contains a good amount of vitamins B-2 and E. It is available in health-food stores and some supermarkets.
Oat flourGroats or rolled oats ground into flour.
OatcakeA flaky, flat Scottish biscuit made with oatmeal.
OatmealOats that have been cleaned, toasted, hulled and cleaned again; most often cooked and served as cereal. There are several varieties of oatmeal. Old-fashioned oats (also called regular rolled oats) have been steamed and flattened by huge rollers and take about 15 minutes to cook. The quick-cooking variety of rolled oats (they cook in about five minutes) are groats that have been cut into pieces before being steamed and rolled into thinner flakes.
OatsA grain that is toasted, hulled, cleaned, and cooked whole (groats), or the groats are steamed, steel-cut, or flattened (rolled). Rolled oats, or old-fashioned oats, may be cut further making them quick-cooking. They may be used interchangeably in baking and are whole grain. Instant oats may not be used interchangeably in baking due to finer cutting and further cooking of the starch.
O'Brien PotatoesA dish of diced potatoes, onions, and sweet peppers or pimientos, fried until browned and crisp.
Ocean perchThis important commercial fish is not a true perch, but is rather a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "sea perch."
Ocean poutA marine fish of the eelpout family found mainly in the Pacific. The flesh is sweet and white and contains very few bones. Sometimes called a "muttonfish."
Oceanic bonitoThis small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light:colored meat similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "katsuo" and the Hawaiians call it "aku."
Ocote[Spanish] small strips of pine used to kindle a fire.
OctopusThis cephalapod, related to the squid and the cuttlefish, can reach 50 feet in length. It features a highly flavorful meat that tends to be a bit on the rubbery side. Octopus is eaten raw, boiled, pickled, sauteed, and fried.
Oeuf a la NeigeSweet meringue puffs that are poached in milk and chilled. When served, these puffs are drizzled with caramel and served with creme anglaise.
OeufThe French word for "egg."
[French] egg.
OffalEdible internal organs of meat, poultry and game.
Oie[French] goose.
Oignon[French] onion.
OilsThe liquid fat pressed from plants and their nuts or seeds. The oil is extracted either by solvent-extraction or cold-pressed. Common types used in home baking are soybean, safflower, corn, sunflower, canola, and olive oils. No oil derived from a plant contains cholesterol, but they will vary in amounts of poly- and mono-unsaturates and saturated fat.
OkraA vegetable brought to the U.S. South by African slaves. Okra pods are green and ridged. When cooked, okra gives off a viscous substance which may serve as a thickener in some dishes.
Introduced from Africa by slaves; resembles a large green chile with longitudinal ribs outside and many round, slimy, but edible seeds inside; okra should be small, not over two or three inches long. Pods should be firm, undamaged, and not at all mushy. Use small unblemished okra for soups and stews and to thicken gumbos.
Olio[Italian] oil.
Olive OilAn oil obtained by pressing tree-ripened olives; has a distinctive fruity, olive flavor and is graded according to its degree of acidity; used as a cooking medium, flavoring and ingredient.
Olive oil has a very distinctive flavor, and has become more prominent in American cooking today. Grades of olive oils are determined by the methods of extraction and the acid content of the resulting oil. Virgin oils are those obtained from the first pressing of the olive without further refinement. The finest olive oil is extra virgin, with an acid content of 1%. Following this are superfine at 1.5%, fine at 3%, and virgin at 4%. Pure olive oils are those which have been extracted by heat. These are of 100% olive oil, but their flavor can result in a harsh, bitter aftertaste. Pomace olive oil is refined from the final pressings and under heat and pressure. The taste is inferior to other olive oils and should never be substituted for them. Olive oil becomes rancid very easily, more so when exposed to heat or light. Always store tightly sealed in a cool, dark place.
OliveThe small fruit of a tree native to the Mediterranean region; has a single pit, high oil content, green color before ripening and green or black color after ripening and an inedibly bitter flavor when raw; eaten on its own after washing, soaking and pickling, or pressed for oil; available in a range of sizes (from smallest to largest): medium, colossal, supercolossal and jumbo.
This is the edible fruit of the olive tree. Found in both green (unripe) and black (ripe) forms, each must undergo a process to remove the bitterness found in them. This curing process is done with brine solutions, salt curing, and drying.
Olla podrida[Spanish] stew.
OllaCommon Mexican pot which is tall and tapered inward on the top; it is shaped especially for cooking beans; stockpots and saucepans are good substitutes.
Oloroso[Spanish] a type of sherry. Oloroso means fragrant in Spanish and this sherry has an intense bouquet.
Omega-3 OilsA classification of fatty acids found in some plants and in all sea creatures; found to be beneficial to coronary health (purportedly lowering the bad LDL cholesterol and raising the good HDL) as well as to brain growth and development.
Omelet PanA shallow pan with sloping sides, a flat bottom and long handle.
OmeletSeasoned eggs that are beaten and fried. The eggs will puff up at which time, they are rolled or folded over.
OnionBulb vegetables related to the lily, with a characteristic strong flavor and odor.
OnoThe Hawaiian name for "Wahoo," a marine fish whose flesh compares favorably with Albacore. It provides a moderate to high:fat flesh that is white and slightly sweet. In Hawaii, "Ono" means "sweet."
OpakapakaPink snapper. A Hawaiian favorite, especially around the holidays.
Open-facedA sandwich prepared with just one piece of bread and topped with a wide variety of meats, vegetables or cheeses; the sandwich can be served hot or cold.
Oporto[Portuguese] sweet dessert port wines named after Oporto, Portugal, on the Douro river.
OpossumA cat:sized marsupial with a prehensile tail native to the Southern and Midwestern U.S. Opossum, which has a flavor resembling young pig, can be prepared in the same manner suitable for a roast suckling pig.
OpuntiaPrickly pear cactus.
Or ganoMexican oregano; wild marjoram; also called wild, bastard or dwarf marjoram; used to season many foods, particularly sauces and soups; plants grow wild in the Southwest; best substitute is marjoram or sage.
Orange blossom water (orange water)Orange blossom extract can be found in fancier food shops. Common in the Middle East.
Orange roughyA New Zealand area fish with lean, white flesh that is firm and mild. Also called "Slimeheads" (by fishermen::not by fish vendors). This popular fish can be poached, baked, broiled, or fried.
A mild flavored New Zealand fish with white flesh, orange roughy is also low in fat.
Ocean perch-like fish from New Zealand. Often substituted for cod. Can be used in any recipe calling for white-fleshed fish.
OrangeAny of a variety of citrus (Citrus sinensis) with juicy, orange-colored segmented flesh, a thin to moderately thick orange-colored rind and a flavor ranging from bitter to tart to sweet; depending on the variety, an orange can be eaten fresh, cooked in sweet or savory dishes, juiced or used as a flavoring or aromatic.
OreganoAn herb (Origanum vulgare) and the wild form of marjoram; has a woody stalk with clumps of tiny, dark green leaves that have a pungent, peppery flavor and are used fresh or dried, principally in Italian and Greek cuisines; also known as wild marjoram.
Orehones[Spanish] dried fruits.
Organic FoodFood grown without the use of any chemicals, including synthetic fertilizers, pesticides or fungicides. No artificial coloring or flavoring or other additives can be used in processing foods labeled organic. Specifics vary from state to state.
Orgeat SyrupA sweet syrup used in cocktails, orgeat syrup is made with almonds, sugar, and rose water or orange-flower water.
OrientaleAn Am ricaine sauce with added cream and curry powder.
OrrechiettiPasta shaped by pressing the point of a knife into a small slice of dough, resulting in a shape similar to a small ear.
OrtolansTiny game birds (buntings).
OrzoItalian for barley and used to describe rice-like pasta.
Small rice shaped pasta.
Oseille[French] sorrel.
Osso BucoAn Italian dish comprised of crosscut slices of the veal shank braised with vegetables, aromatics and stock. Milanese style is served with saffron risotto and gremolata.
Ostiones[Spanish] oysters.
OuzoA clear anise-flavored liqueur from Greece.
A clear anise-flavored liqueur from Greece. It is generally mixed with water which turns it whitish and opaque.
Oven BagA heat-resistant nylon bag for cooking meals without basting or tending.
Oven mittThickly padded or heat-insulated large mittens worn to load or remove baked goods from oven.
Oven slideCookie sheet.
OvenAn oven may be defined as an enclosed area with parts which supply heat and air flow in order to cook food. Conventional/thermal ovens use electric elements or gas burners to bake, roast, or broil; convention ovens use electric elements or gas burners plus the addition of a fan to circulate heated air over, under, and around the food. Most electric ovens have controls which cycle the lower and upper elements for consistent temperatures. Recently, ovens have been introduced which also use halogen lights and/or microwave energy to increase the cooking speed. Ovens may vary in width from 20 inches to 36 inches and may be in a free-standing, slide-in, drop-in, or wall oven configuration. Ovens can have cleaning options of standard clean (clean by hand), self-clean, or continuous clean.
Overland troutAn old Western term for pigs and hogs; sometimes bacon.
Oxalic AcidOxalic acid is found naturally in many plants, but is poisonous in excessive amounts. Spinach, rhubarb, sorrel all contain measurable amounts of oxalic acid. It actually forms insoluble compounds with calcium and iron which inhibit their absorption by the human body, thus diminishing the purported nutritional value of some vegetables, particularly spinach.
OxidizedWine that has been in contact with air too long, causing it to darken and smell stale.
Oyster MushroomA smooth-capped mushroom with a fan shape and mild oyster-like flavor. They're found dried or fresh in many supermarkets and most oriental markets.
A fan-shaped wild mushroom with a grayish cap, that grows in clusters on the side of trees. It is off-white to grayish in color and has a soft texture. These mushrooms have a very subtle flavor. They are also being cultivated in the US, making them readily available in markets and moderately priced.
Oyster plantAn edible root, known also as vegetable oyster, or salsify. It is prepared like parsnips.
Oyster SauceA bottled all-purpose Chinese seasoning made from oysters, water, salt,cornstarch, and caramel coloring.
Classic cooking sauce from China. Also used in other Asian cuisines. Originally made from oysters, water and salt only, oyster sauce now contains added cornstarch and caramel color, to improve its appearance and also to thicken liquids in stir-fries. Surprisingly it has no fishy taste. Found in large supermarkets and Oriental markets. Oyster sauce is a molasses-colored, reddish, dark brown sauce consisting of oysters, brine and soy sauce cooked until thick and concentrated.
OysterA bivalve mollusk with a rough gray shell. The flesh varies from creamy beige to pale gray; the flavor from salty to bland; the texture from tender to firm. The Atlantic or Eastern oysters are considered superior to Pacific varieties.
Bivalve mollusks with a hard, rough gray shell and creamy-beige to pale-gray meat.
Four major species in the United States are: Atlantic, found along the East and Gulf coasts; the European, a flat-shelled, round oyster of the Northwest and Maine; the Olympia, the half-dollar-sized oyster grown in the Northwest; and the fruit-flavored Pacific oyster, known for its wildly scalloped shell.
Oysters RockefellerThis creation was born in New Orleans in the late 1890s, and was reportedly named for John D. Rockefeller because of how rich it is. The dish is composed of oysters on the half-shell baked with a mixture of spinach, shallots and celery then topped with bread crumbs.
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Pacanas[Spanish] pecan nuts.
Pachola[Spanish] thin, half circle-shaped piece of ground meat.
PackedPressed or mashed together tightly, filling the measuring utensil with as much of the ingredient as possible.
PaellaA Spanish dish consisting of rice, saffron, a variety of meat and shellfish, garlic, onions, peas, tomatoes, and other vegetables. It's named for the wide, shallow pan it's cooked in.
A Spanish rice dish originating in the town of Valencia. There are hundreds of recipes for paella, all claiming to be authentic. The only ingredients that are necessary for paella are rice, tomatoes, and saffron. Other ingredients are chicken, chorizo, mussels, squid, peppers, and beans. More elaborate preparations include shrimp, lobster, and duck.
PaillardA piece of meat or fish that has been pounded very thinly and grilled or sauteed.
Pain Perdu"Lost bread." French toast.
Pain[French] bread.
Palillo[Spanish] toothpick.
Palm HeartsHearts of young palm trees.
Palm SugarKnown as gula jawa (Indonesian), gula Malacca (Malaysian), nahm tahn beep (Thai). Ivory to light caramel colored sugar cakes. Its flavor is extracted from coconut flower or palm. It is similar to brown sugar. In fact, if you can't find it, you can substitute maple sugar or brown sugar blended with a little maple syrup (to moisten) for palm sugar.
PalmierA cookie made of sheets of puff pastry that are rolled in sugar and folded to resemble palm leaves. These cookies are baked until the sugar becomes caramelized.
Pampano[Spanish] pompano.
Pan dulce[Spanish] sweet bread.
Pan FryTo brown and cook foods in fat in a shallow pan, where the fat does not completely cover the food.
Pan[Spanish] bread.
Panache[French] mixed.
PanadaA thick paste used as a binding agent for forcemeats. Flour panadas are made in a style similar to choux paste. Other types use bread crumbs or potato puree.
Panaderia[Spanish] bakery.
Pan-bagnatA sandwich from southern France, consisting of small round loaves of bread which have been hollowed out and filled with onions, anchovies, black olives, and tuna, then drenched in extra virgin olive oil.
PanbroilTo cook a food in a skillet without added fat, removing any fat as it accumulates.
To cook uncovered on a hot surface, usually in a fry pan. Fat is poured off as it accumulates.
To cook quickly in a hot skillet with very little fat or a sprinkling of salt.
PancettaAn Italian cured meat made from the belly (pancia) of the big (the same cut used for bacon). It is salted but lightly spiced, but not smoked.
Cured pork belly that is rolled and tied. Unlike American bacon, this is not smoked.
Pancita[Spanish] stuffed sheep's stomach.
Pane[Italian] bread.
Panela[Spanish] white cheese made with rennet; slightly salty; it holds its shape when melted; normally sold in blocks or rounds; often sliced thick and broiled or baked; Monterey Jack can be substituted.
PanetoneAn Italian cake made with a dough rich in egg yolks, traditionally served around Christmas time. The dough is studded with raisins, candied fruits and occasionally pistachios.
PanforteA dense, flat Italian cake filled with hazelnuts, almonds, honey, candied citron and citrus peel, cocoa and spices.
A rich dense torte made of candied fruit and nuts.
Pan-fryCooking food in a shallow pan that is filled with hot fat; a dry-heat cooking method
Panfry and saute both mean to cook quickly in a small amount of hot oil, butter, or other fat. Strictly speaking, panfrying means to cook larger pieces, like meat, in a hot pan, turning only once or twice. Sauteing means to toss foods over high heat.
To cook in a small amount of fat. (See Fry and Saute.)
Panino[talian] sandwich.
PankoAlso known as Japanese breadcrumbs; coarse dry white breadcrumbs used for breading rellenos and other fried foods; similar to untoasted coconut in appearance; provides a nuttier, crispier crust than regular breadcrumbs; found in Asian markets and many grocery stores; ordinary breadcrumbs may be substituted if necessary.
Panna[Italian] cream.
PanningMethod of cocoking vegetables in their own juices in a tightly covered pan. Small amount of fat is used to moisten the pan before juices escape.
PanochaMexican brown sugar.
Panques[Spanish] pancakes.
PansitWild rice noodles used in Filipino cooking. Soak in warm water for 15 minutes until supple, and drain before using.
PansottiA stuffed, triangular pasta popular in the Italian region of Liguria.
PanzanellaA salad consisting of toasted cubes of bread tossed with vegetables and vinaigrette. The salad is then marinated for at least one hour. The bread should be very firm so that it will endure the soaking of dressing. Vegetables can include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and onions. Lots of garlic, capers, black olives, and anchovies are added to the salad.
PapadumFlat lentil wafers that puff up when deep-fried. Used in Indian cuisine.
Papas[Spanish] potatoes.
PapayaNative to North America, the papaya is a large fruit which is golden yellow when ripe. Ripe papaya has an exotic sweet-tart flavor. The fruit is sometimes called pawpaw.
Almost oval melon-like fruit with creamy golden yellow skin, orange yellow flesh and many shiny black seeds right in the center; when slightly under-ripe, the flesh is firm, and at this point it is good for making relishes; it is soft and very juicy when ripe; the skin contains a natural enzyme that tenderizes meat and is frequently included in marinades for that reason. Some weigh up to ten pounds, but most are about the size of a mango. Papaya will ripen at room temperature, so you can buy them firm; but eat when soft.
Papel[Spanish] paper.
Papillote, EnA food (ex. fish with a vegetable garnish) enclosed in parchment paper or greased paper wrapper and baked; the paper envelope is usually slit open tableside so that the diner can enjoy the escaping aroma.
Baked in an oiled paper bag.
PappardellePlain pasta, usually homemade, shaped in broad ribbons with fluted edges, cut into short pieces (?-inch wide by 12 inches long).
Wide flat pasta noodles served with rich, hearty sauces.
PaprikaA blend of dried red-skinned chiles; the flavor can range from slightly sweet and mild to pungent and moderately hot and the color can range from bright red-orange to deep blood red; used in Central European and Spanish cuisines as a spice and garnish; also known as Hungarian pepper.
[Hungarian] translated to sweet red pepper. A spicy seasoning ground from a sweet variety of red pepper. It is used to season ragouts, stuffings, and sauces, and as a garnish.
ParaffinA waxy substance used for coating items such as cheese and the tops of jars of jams and jellies to keep air out, thus preventing spoilage.
Parathas[Indian] triangular shaped, fried flaky breads. Like chapatis, they are made out of whole wheat flour, but they are prepared using a slightly different method. The dough for parathas is oiled, rolled, and folded several times, giving this bread its distinctive flaky texture. The result is a bread crispy on the outside, soft on the inside.
ParboilTo cook partially in boiling water.
To boil until partially cooked. Usually cooking is completed by another method.
To boil a food briefly, until partially done. A food might be parboiled before adding it to faster-cooking ingredients to insure all ingredients are evenly cooked.
Boil for a short time to partially cook.
ParchTo dry; to cook in dry heat until almost scorched.
Parchment PaperA heavy moisture and grease-resistant paper used to line baking pans and wrap foods to be baked.
A silicon based paper that can withstand high heat. Often used to prepare sugar and chocolate confections because they do not stick to the paper at all. Parchment paper may be reused several times.
ParcookTo partially cook an item before storing or finishing by any number of other cooking methods.
PareTo cut off the outside covering. Pare is applied to potatoes, apples, etc.
To cut off the outside covering.
To remove skins and peels from fruits or vegetables with a small knife or peeler.
PareveA Jewish term which describes food made without dairy or animal ingredients. According to Jewish dietary laws, animal food can't be eaten at the same meal with dairy food, but pareve food may be eaten with either.
ParfaitA dessert consisting of ice cream, layered with a dessert sauce, fruit, or liquer.
[French] A dessert made of layers of fruit, syrup, ice cream and whipped cream, frozen and served in tall slender glasses.
Parfum[French] flavor.
ParisienneA white sauce with egg yolks.
Parmagiano-ReggianoCheese developed in northern Italy in the Parma and Reggio Emilia regions, the original Parmagiano-Reggiano reflects 800 years of tradition and is considered one of the great cheeses of the world. This hard cheese, aged 12 to 24 months or longer, is produced by artisans from the raw milk of cattle fed fresh fodder in their spring and summer pasture. Its uniform color ranges from a pale straw yellow to a deep yellow shade, and it is dotted throughout with barely visible holes. It has an exceptionally fine flavor, full but not pungent. Whole Parmesan cheeses are large and drum-shaped and may weigh 40 to 55 pounds (18 to 25 kg). Methods of production vary from one region to another, with different aging times and temperatures.
Parmentier[French] any dish prepared with potatoes. The term is derived from Antoine Parmentier who introduced the potato to France.
Parmesan CheeseA cow's milk cheese whose taste ranges from sweet to sharp. It is a hard cheese, most suitable for grating. Most often served with Italian food.
[Italian] made from cow's milk, this nutty-sweet dry cheese is the best for grating. There is only one true Parmesan and that is Parmigiano-Reggiano.
ParmigianaPrepared with Parmesan cheese.
Parrilla[Spanish] broiler or grill.
[Spanish] grilled items.
Parrot fishAny of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring and the shape of their jaws. "Also called "Pollyfish."
ParsleyAn herb (Petroselium crispum) with long, slender stalks, small, curly dark green leaves and a slightly peppery, tangy fresh flavor (the flavor is stronger in the stalks, which are used in a bouquet garni); generally used fresh as a flavoring or garnish; also known as curly parsley.
Whether curly or flat leafed and indispensable herb in cooking and garnishing. Flat leafed parsley has slightly better flavor.
ParsnipA long, white root vegetable with feathery green leaves. Its look and taste is similar to a carrot and it can be cooked in much the same way.
Root vegetable that looks like a white carrot. Great in soups and stews, or pureed.
Partially SetTerm for the state of a gelatin mixture that has thickened to the consistency of unbeaten egg whites.
Pasa[Spanish] raisin.
Pasilla chilesCalled a chilaca in its fresh form. The mature chilaca turns from dark green to dark brown. After drying (when it becomes a pasilla) it changes to a blackish-brown. It has a rich hot flavor and is generally ground and used for sauces. Pasilla means little raisin; in some places the Ancho chile is called pasilla chile; long, thin and dry with a dusky flavor; they are hot; thin fleshed, with flavors of dried fruit and licorice; anchoes may be substituted.
Pasilla Chili PeppersMedium-hot chili peppers that are generally 6 inches to 8 inches long and 1 inch to 2 inches in diameter. These rich-flavored peppers are blackish-brown in color and sometimes referred to as chile negro.
Pasilla(pah-SEE-yah) Long and narrow; dried, it is nearly black and wrinkled; soak then puree for complex, medium-hot red sauce; used in chili powder and mole; fresh, it is used like poblanos.
Passion FruitThis purple fruit has a smooth skin that wrinkles as it ages and highly fragrant orange pulp filled with many tiny edible seeds. The flavor is tangy but sweet. It can be chilled and eaten as is, added to fruit salads or used as a flavoring for baked goods, preserves and beverages.
Purplish-brown on the outside, filled with (edible) pits and orange flesh inside. Unadulterated, it is tart and hard to take. Passionfruit get its name from its flowers, which Spanish missionaries thought resembled symbols of Christ's Passion, such as the crown of thorns.
Pasta e FagioliA rich bean soup with pasta, in which a large sausage (such as cotechino) has been cooked. The soup is eaten first, followed by the sausage served with mustard and bread.
PastaPasta may refer to any of a wide variety of noodles from a variety of countries. Italian pasta is usually made with a dough of durum or semolina wheat flour, liquid, and sometimes egg. Pasta made with semolina flour is generally superior, since it doesn't absorb too much water and stays somewhat firm when cooked al dente.
" All macaroni products. Any form of spaghetti or noodles.
Angel Hair: In Italian, capelli d'angelo,this fine spaghetti is called capelli d'angelo. Goes best with light, delicate sauces. Cooks in six minutes.
Campanelle: This fancy-looking pasta with a cone shape and wavy edges traps and holds chunky sauces with meat and vegetables. Cooks in 13 minutes.
Castellane: The ridges and conch-shell shape of this pasta help trap hearty sauces. Cooks in 13 minutes.
Elbows: Short, curved tubes of pasta are available in different sizes. Most often associated with macaroni and cheese, elbows also can be used with other creamy sauces or with meat sauce. Cooks in seven minutes.
Farfalle: Also called bow-ties or butterflies. They come in small, medium and large. Their large, flat surface makes them best for tomato, ,meat and vegetable sauces. Cooks in 11 minutes.
Fettuccine: Translates to ""little ribbons."" This pasta is usually 1/4 inch thick and available straight or in coils. Its thickness makes it perfect for heavier sauces, such as alfredo. Cooks in 12 minutes.
Fiori: In Italian, fiori means flower. This pasta has rounded petals that provide extra surface area for chunky tomato-based sauces. Has lots of kid appeal. Cooks in seven minutes. ""
Penne: Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth sides. Those with ridges are called penne rigati. These are also called mostaciolli. Large quill-shaped tubes are called manicotti.
Rigatoni: Ridged tubes about 2 inches long and 1/2 inch wide. This hearty pasta should be served with hearty, chunky sauces. Cooks in 13 minutes.
Rotini: Short, 2-inch-long, corkscrew-shaped pasta that's good with chunky sauces. Cooks in eight minutes."
Pastel[Spanish] cake; pie.
Pasteles[Spanish] envelopes of dough made of plantains filled with tasty ingredients.
Pastelon[Spanish] pie.
PasteurizeTo kill bacteria by heating liquids to moderately high temperatures only briefly. French scientist Louis Pasteur discovered the solution while he was researching the cause of beer and wine spoilage.
[French] to sterilize milk by heating it to 60 to 82C or 140 to 180F degrees to destroy harmful bacteria. The term is derived from Louis Pasteur, who developed the method.
Pasticceria[Italian] pastry.
Pasticcio[Italian] pie.
Pastilla (Bistella)A Moroccan pie made with chicken wrapped in phyllo dough. When finished cooking, the pastilla is dusted with sugar and cinnamon.
PastinaA small pasta, of any shape but frequently round; used in soups.
Tiny bits of noodles.
PastramiA highly seasoned preserved meat made from beef dry:cured with salt or saltpeter. The seasonings include garlic, ground pepper, cinnamon, red peppers, cloves, allspice and coriander seeds. Commonly served as a sandwich on rye bread.
Highly, spiced smoked beef, usually prepared from the shoulder cuts.
Pastry BagA cone-shaped bag with openings at both ends. Food is placed into the large opening then squeezed out the small opening which may be fitted with a decorator tip. It has a variety of uses, including decorating cakes and cookies, forming pastries, or piping decorative edgings. Bags may be made of cloth, plastic, or other materials.
Pastry BlenderA kitchen utensil with several u-shaped wires attached to a handle. It's used to cut solid fat (like shortening or butter) into flour and other dry ingredients in order to evenly distribute the fat particles.
Pastry BrushA brush used to apply glaze or egg wash to breads and other baked goods either before or after baking.
Pastry creamA cooked custard thickened with flour. Some versions may use cornstarch or a mixture of the two starches.
Pastry flourA fine-textured, soft wheat flour with low-gluten and high-starch content. It may be bleached, unbleached, or whole wheat. Soft red or white wheat may be used to produce this flour.
Pastry WheelA utensil with a cutting wheel attached to a handle. It's used to mark and cut rolled-out dough, and may have a plain or decorative edge.
Small, serrated wooden or metal wheel-like utensil for cutting and fluting pastry.
PastryDough made with flour, butter and water and baked or deep-fried until crisp.
PastySmall pastry pie with a savory filling of meat, potatoes and onion.
PatTo take the underside of the hand and gently press a food. The purpose might be to pat dry ingredients onto the surface so they will adhere during cooking, or to pat with a towel to remove excess moisture.
Patatas[Spanish] potatoes.
Patate[Spanish] sweet potato.
Pate a ChouxCream puff paste. It is a mixture of boiled water, fat, and flour, beat in whole eggs.
Pate a FoncerA shortcrust pastry dough made with butter and strengthened with water. Used as a lining for meat or fish pies.
Pate BriseeA short crust pastry dough made with butter and eggs.
Pate ChouxA paste used to make cream puffs, eclairs, and other more elaborate pastries. It is made by adding flour to boiling water or milk, which has been enriched with butter. Eggs are then added into the paste to leaven it. Savory pastries such as gougere may also be made with this paste.
Pate de foi grasA paste made of finely ground goose livers.
Pate FeuilletaeA dough comprised of many alternating layers of butter and pastry. This is an extremely versatile dough though preparation of it is labor intensive and very difficult.
Pate SableAnother type of sweet, short crust dough.
Pate SucreeA sweet, short crust dough for tarts and tartlets.
PateA well:seasoned French preparation using a meat or fish paste filling. Sometimes a fruit or vegetable mixture is used. Can be smooth or coarsely textured. Pates may be served hot or cold, usually as a first course or appetizer.
An appetizer, pate usually consists of seasoned, finely ground or strained meat, poultry, or fish. Pate is usually cooked in a crust or mold (may be called terrine) and is often served with crackers or toast.
[French] a term referring to many different preparations of meat, fish and vegetable pies. The definitions of which have been altered through the years. Originally pat‚ referred to a filled pastry much like American or English pies. Now the term pate en croute is used to describe these preparations. Pate en terrine has been shortened to either pate or terrine. A terrine is generally a finer forcemeat than that used for pate, and is always served cold. Pates are coarser forcemeats and, as stated before, are often prepared in a pastry crust. We now use these terms interchangeably and inclusive of all styles of forcemeat. Look for definitions under ballottine and galantine.
Pates[French] pasta.
Patisserie[French] pastry.
Pato[Spanish] duck.
Patty cupsPaper cupcake holders.
Patty shellA shell made from puff paste to hold creamed mixtures or fruit.
PattyA thin, round piece of food, such as a hamburger patty or a peppermint patty.
Small, flat, round or oval shaped cake of food, such as potato cake or fish cake, which is served hot; small, flat, individual pie, such as a chicken patty, which is served hot or cold; small, round form for meats such as hamburger.
Paupiette[French] a thin slice of meat, like a scallopine, which is stuffed and rolled. These may also be made of fish or vegetables.
Thinly sliced meats wrapped around fillings.
Pave[French] cold savory mousse mixture set in a square mold coated with aspic jelly; square sponge cake, filled with butter cream and coated with icing.
Pavo (guajolote)[Spanish] turkey.
PaysanneFrench name avariety of vegetables cut in a small square, usually about 1/4". Used in soups or granish for meats and seafood.
A dish prepared country-style. A vegetable garnish.
Peach MelbaA dessert created in the late 1800s by the famous French chef Escoffier for Dame Nellie Melba, a popular Australian opera singer. It's made with two peach halves that have been poached in syrup and cooled. Each peach half is placed hollow side down on top of a scoop of vanilla ice cream, then topped with Melba sauce (a raspberry sauce) and sometimes with whipped cream and sliced almonds.
PeachA medium-sized stone fruit (Prunus persica) native to China; has a fuzzy, yellow-red skin, pale orange, yellow or white juicy flesh surrounding a hard stone and a sweet flavor; available as a clingstone and freestone.
PeaksThe mounds made in a mixture. For example egg white that has been whipped to stiffness. Peaks are "stiff" if they stay upright or "soft" if they curl over.
Peanut OilClear oil pressed from peanuts; very useful in cooking and as a salad oil. Peanut oil has a delicate flavor and high smoke point, making it perfect for deep-frying.
This flavorful oil borders on all-purpose. Its flavor, though distinctive, is not overpowering, and it is a great oil for cooking (especially highly spiced foods and Asian dishes in which olive oil is out of place).
PeanutA legume and not a nut (Arachis hypogea), it is the plant's nut-like seed that grows underground; the hard nut has a papery brown skin and is encased in a thin, netted tan pod and is used for snacking and for making peanut butter and oil; also known as a groundnut; earthnut, goober (from the African work nguba) and goober pea.
Ground nut, eaten plain or roasted - sometimes salted and sometimes not. Used to make peanut butter and oils.
PearA spherical to bell-shaped pome fruit (Pyrus communis), generally with a juicy, tender, crisp off-white flesh, moderately thin skin that can range in color from celadon green to golden yellow to tawny red and a flavor that can be sweet to spicy; pears can be eaten out of hand or cooked and are grown in temperate regions worldwide.
Pearl barleyDe-husked barley grains, primarily used in soups.
Pearl OnionsMild-flavored onions about the size of a small marble; often cooked as a side dish or pickled as a condiment or garnish.
Tiny, marble-size onions that are difficult to peel but make a good side dish or addition to soups and stews. Frozen ones are easier to handle, but less flavorful.
PeasThe edible seeds contained within the pods of various vines; the seeds are generally shelled and the pod discarded; although available fresh, peas are usually marketed canned or frozen.
Pease puddingPuree of cooked, dried peas which is made into puddings, boiled and traditionally served with pork.
PecanThe nut of a tree of the hickory family (Carya oliviformis), native to North America; has a smooth, thin, hard, tan shell enclosing a bilobed, golden brown kernel with beige flesh and a high fat content.
Pecans (Sp: pacanas)An oil-rich native American nut; probably originated in Texas; grown commercially in Arizona, Georgia, New Mexico and Texas.
Peche MelbaPeaches served with a raspberry sauce.
Peche[French] peach.
Pecorino RomanoThe Pecorino cheeses are made from sheep's milk in Italy. Romano is the best known. Parmesan is a good Romano substitute.
Hard grating cheese made from sheep's milk with a nutty, earthy flavor.
PectinPectin is a natural substance used to thicken jams, jellies, and preserves. Pectin is naturally present in fruits, but most don't have enough to jell. The alternative is to cook the mixture until it's reduced to the desired consistency. Pectin will only work when combined with a specific balance of sugar and acid.
Found naturally in fruits and vegetables, gelatin-like pectin is used as a thickener in jellies and jams. Available in liquid and dry forms.
PeelTo strip of the outer covering. Peel is applied to oranges, grapefruit, etc.
To strip off the outside covering.
To remove the outside covering, such as the rind or skin, of a fruit or vegetable with a knife or vegetable peeler.
A large tool, that looks like a shovel, used to slide pizza onto a hot stone.
Pegboard (food industry term)A display used for small products or individual items.
PemmicanOf Native American origin; dried, pounded meat mixed with fat and berries, pressed into cakes for survival food; was later adapted by the U.S. Army.
PenneItalian for pen or quill and used to describe short to medium-length straight tubes (ridged or smooth) of pasta with diagonally cut ends.
Diagonally cut smooth tubes are great for trapping sauces. Those with ridged sides are called penne rigate. Cooks in 12 minutes.
Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth sides. Those with ridges are called penne rigati. These are also called mostaciolli. Large quill-shaped tubes are called manicotti.
PeperoniMade with peppers.
Pepinos[Spanish] cucumbers.
Pepitas[Spanish] pumpkin seeds with the shells removed.
Pepper steakA beefsteak sprinkled with black pepper, sauteed in butter and served with a sauce made from the drippings, stock, wine, and cream. Also refers to a Chinese stir:fry of steak strips, green peppers, and onion cooked in soy sauce.
PepperThe fruit of various members of the Capsicum genus; native to the Western hemisphere, a pepper has a hollow body with placental ribs (internal white veins) to which tiny seeds are attached (seeds are also attached to the stem end of the interior); a pepper can be white, yellow, green, brown, purple or red with a flavor ranging from delicately sweet to fiery hot; the genus includes sweet peppers and hot peppers.
PeppercornPeppercorns are small berries from a vine plant. The black peppercorn is picked when it is almost ripe, then dried. Whole ground or cracked, black peppercorns produce our everyday black pepper. The milder white pepper is made from the dried inner kernel of the ripe berry.
PeppermintAn herb and member of the mint family (Mentha piperita); has thin stiff, pointed bright green, purple-tinged leaves and a pungent, menthol flavor; used as a flavoring and garnish.
PepperoniA highly spiced dry sausage made of pork and beef. Seasoned with salt, black pepper, cayenne, and garlic. Often thin sliced and served as an appetizer or as a topping for pizzas.
Anaheim: (ANN-uh-hime) Fresh, six inches long, can be green or red; mildly hot and fleshy, good for stuffing and grilling.
Ancho: (AHN-choh) Wrinkled skin, squat, dark red-brown; lots of pulp; sweet and medium hot, lots of flavor; used for making mole.
Arbol: (ARE-bowl) Skinny, small, hot; red or green when fresh; reddish brown dried; adds heat and flavor to tomato and tomatillo salsas.
Banana: Fresh, can be mild or slightly hot; roast on the grill to eat or use to season tacos.
Cascabel: (KAS-kuh-behl) Dry, smooth skin, brick red, one and one-half inches wide; fairly hot; woodsy, tobacco flavor; great in sauces.
Cayenne: (KI-yehn) Red fresh or dry; long, extremely hot; associated with Cajun food.
Chipotle: (chih-POHT-lay) Smoked jalapeno; dried, dull brown skin up to three inches long; also sold canned in adobo sauce; widely popular in United States to season simultaneously with heat and smoke. ""
Guajillo: In Italian, fiori means flower. This pasta has rounded petals that provide extra surface area for chunky tomato-based sauces. Has lots of kid appeal. Cooks in seven minutes.
Serrano:: (seh-RRAH-noh) Fresh, two or three inches long in red or green; hot; used to season green sauce and fresh foods such as salsa and guacamole.
Habanero: (ah-bah-NEH-roh) When fresh, orange to red; extremely hot and beloved for underlying fruitiness.
Jalapeno: (hah-lah-PEH-nyoh) Fresh, favorite supermarket pepper in green and red; medium-hot; thick flesh; roast and use as seasoning; chop for fresh and cooked foods.
Mata: (MAH-tah) Small; when fresh, extremely hot; use in fresh sauces or stir-fry into oil before adding vegetables; add to shaker jar with vinegar to make hot sauce.
Mora and morita: (MO-ruh and mo-REET-uh) Dried red jalapeno, two or three inches long, red-brown; smoked flavor; medium hot; used in salsas, soups, etc. (Moritas are smaller.) "
Pera[Spanish] pear.
Percent of profit (food industry term)The selling price of an item minus its cost, expressed as a percentage of its selling price. Also referred to as margin or percent of margin.
PerchAny of a number of spiny:finned freshwater fish found in North America and Europe. The best known U.S. perch is the "yellow perch." Perch have a mild, firm, low:fat flesh. The saltwater white perch and ocean perch are not true perches.
PerciatelliPasta whose shape is similar to that of spaghetti, but with a hollow center; also called bucatini.
Long macaroni.
PercolatorTwo-part coffee pot which forces boiling water from lower half up through coffee grains contained in upper half, and finally filtered through a fine sieve.
Perdrix[French] partridge.
Perejil[Spanish] parsley.
PerigeuxA brown sauce made with Madeira wine and truffles.
PerigourdineA P rigeux sauce with added goose liver.
PerillaA Japanese herb that has a dark, russet-purple dentate leaf.
Peron or Manzana:(pay-RHON or mahn ZAHN-ah) Fresh, thin fleshed, meaty; medium hot to extremely hot; add to sauces or roast and peel for stuffing or rajas.
Persil[French] parsley.
PersilladeA mixture of paste garlic, finely chopped parsley, a little olive oil, and sometimes bread crumbs.
A combination of chopped parsley and garlic, usually added to dishes at the end of cooking. nice combined with breadcrumbs as a crust.
PersimmonA round fruit with a glossy skin that can range in color from yellow to deep orange with sweet, creamy orange flesh. All persimmons have a characteristic astringent flavor that causes the mouth to pucker when they are not ripe.
A brilliant orange, smooth-skinned fruit that is terribly tart when unripe, but very sweet when fully ripe. Unlike most other fruits, there is no such thing as an overripe persimmon.
Pescado[Spanish] fish.
Pesce[Italian] fish.
PestoPesto is an Italian basil sauce. Many variations of this sauce exist including different nut based pestos, different herb based pestos, sun dried tomato pesto, and black olive pesto.
[Italian] a delicious sauce used for pastas, grilled meats, and poultry. This is made of fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, and parmesan cheese. Some versions will also add parsley and walnuts or pine nuts. The ingredients are ground into a paste and moistened with the olive oil. Pesto is also used to describe similar sauces that contain other herbs or nuts.
Petit FourSmall bite-size cakes, petits fours are usually square or diamond-shaped. They're typically coated with icing and decorated.
Small, decoratively iced, rich cookie or cake served on elaborate buffets or at the end of a multi-course meal.
Petit pain[French] a roll.
Petit pois[French] Tiny young green peas.
Petite marmiteA rich meat and vegetable soup.
Pfeffer[German] pepper.
Pfeffern sse[German] Peppernuts; Small spicy cake balls, dusted with confectioners sugar.
PheasantA medium:sized game bird related to the partridge and the quail. The female's flesh is plumper, juicier, and more tender. Farm:raised birds have a somewhat milder flavor than wild varieties.
A game bird with dark flesh and an average weight of 1.5 to 2 lbs.
Phyllo Dough (Filo)Paper-thin sheets of pastry dough for Middle Eastern baking. Can be found in most supermarkets frozen in boxes. Used for Greek Baklava and many other baked dishes.
Phyllo:A Greek pastry, phyllo is made up of tissue-thin layers of dough. The dough is used for dishes such as baklava and spanikopita. It can usually be found frozen in supermarkets. Phyllo is sometimes spelled filo.
Pib, pibilYucatecan pit barbecue; barbecued.
PicadilloA Spanish dish made up of ground pork and beef, tomatoes, garlic, onions, and other foods, depending on the region. In Mexico, picadillo is used as a stuffing.
[Spanish] hash; shredded or ground beef, spices and other ingredients; normally used as a filling.
PicanteSpanish for flavored with hot peppers (chiles).
[Spanish] sharp, hot and spicy (to taste).
Piccata[Italian] chopped meat.
Picholine OliveFrench green olive, salt-brine cured, with a subtle, slightly salty flavor; sometimes preserved with citric acid in the United States.
Pichon[Spanish] squab; domesticated pigeons.
Pickapeppa SauceA sweet and sour, mild hot pepper sauce from Jamaica.
PickerelA small (between two and three pound) variety of the freshwater pike. Pickerel are know for their lean, firm flesh.
PickleTo preserve food in a vinegar mixture or seasoned brine. Cucumbers, cauliflower, onions, baby corn, and and watermelon rind are some of the most popular foods to pickle.
To preserve food in a vinegar or brine mixture.
Pickling saltA fine-grained salt without iodine, used in pickled meat dishes. Found in all supermarkets.
Pickling SpiceA combination of spices usually including mustard seed, bay leaves, cinnamon, pepper, allspice, ginger, turmeric, and cardamom. Pickling spices are used primarily for pickling foods, but may also be used to season certain dishes.
Pico de GalloLiterally rooster's beak, a coarse uncooked tomato salsa.
[Mexican] "beak of the rooster"; salsa cruda; very hot, raw salsa with tomatoes, onions, cilantro and serrano chiles; called salsa m xicana in Mexico.
Picoso[Spanish] hot (to taste).
PierogiPolish dumplings filled with a minced mixture, such as pork, onions, cottage cheese and seasonings.
PigeonA widely distributed bird that is normally eaten only when young. Squabs are young pigeons that have never flown are therefore very tender. Squabs are normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old. May be prepared like chicken.
PignoliPine nuts.
Pig's feetThe feet and ankles of a pig. Available fresh, pickled, and smoked. Fresh and smoked pig's feet are used in sauces, soups, and stews. Pig's feet are called "trotters" in England.
PikeA family of fish that includes the pike, pickerel, and the muskellunge. These freshwater fish have long bodies, pointed heads, vicious teeth, and provide a lean, firm, bony flesh. Used in French "quenelles" and the Jewish "gefilte fish."
PikiIndian bread baked as thin and crisp as paper.
Pilaf, PilauAn Armenian, Greek or southern Russian rice dish with seasonings, often with meats, vegetables or poultry added.
A side dish of rice or other grains cooked in a broth with seasonings and sometimes tossed with vegetables or meat. Also known as pilau.
Piloncillo[Spanish] an unrefined cane sugar that is purchased in molded hard cones; It is beige to brown in color; the deeper the color, the more molasses flavor it has; dark brown sugar may be substituted.
Pilze[German] mushrooms.
PimentonMexican paprika; similar in taste to New Mexico ground red mild chile peppers.
A name used for roasted red peppers that have been canned or bottled in liquid. Used for stuffing green olives.
Pimienta negra[Spanish] black pepper.
Pimienta[Spanish] pepper.
Pimiento chileMeaty and luscious with a tinge of spice; grown in California and southern United States; when dried, is ground into paprika; use fresh red bell peppers if pimientos are unavailable.
Pimiento or PimentoA large red, sweet pepper. Pimientos are usually found diced in cans and jars and are added to dishes to enhance the color and flavor.
Pimientos dulces[Spanish] sweet peppers.
Pin bone steakA steak cut from the sirloin.
Pinas[Spanish] pineapples; used in salsas, relishes, desserts and cocktails.
PinchAs much of an ingredient that can be held between the thumb and forefinger. A very small, approximate amount.
Pine NutsThe blanched seeds from pine cones. Other names are: Indian nut, pinon, pignoli, and pignolia.
Also pignoli nuts, small, pellet-shaped nuts. Expensive (wonderfully sweet and rich) little nuts that come from a large pinecone of Italy. May substitute slivered almonds. The Southwestern Pignons are similar.
PineappleA tropical fruit (Ananas comosus) with a spiny, diamond-patterned, greenish-brown skin and swordlike leaves; the juicy yellow flesh surrounds a hard core and has a sweet-tart flavor.
Pink salmonA lower fat variety of salmon. Also called the "humpback salmon."
PinonPine nuts, seeds of large pine cones. Used in deserts and breads or roasted and enjoyed as nut meats.
[Spanish] pine nuts, pignolis; seeds of the pi on pine which ripen in the crevices of pine cones throughout the desert Southwest; delicious raw or toasted; store tightly covered and either refrigerate or freeze them, depending on how soon they are to be used.
PintA unit of volume measurement equal to 16 fl. oz. in the U.S. system.
Pintade[French] Guinea hen.
Pinto BeanA medium-sized pale pink bean with reddish-brown streaks; available dried; also known as a crabeye bean and a red Mexican bean.
Name taken from pintar (to paint); reddish-brown speckled beans that turn pink when cooked; used in traditional Mexican cookery; when a recipe title says "frijoles," it is most likely referring to pinto beans. Pinto beans make great refried beans; they are also good for beans and rice, chili, or served as a puree.
PipeTo squeeze icing or other soft food through a pastry bag to make a design or decorative edible edging.
To squeeze a paste-like mixture (usually frosting) through a pastry bag.
Pipian[Spanish] sauce containing ground nuts or seeds and spices; Indian stew or fricassee thickened by its ingredients rather than by flour.
Piquant, PiquanteSpicy or sharp in flavor.
A term which generally means a tangy flavor.
Piquante SauceA sauce made with shallots, white wine vinegar, gherkins, parsley, and a variety of herbs and seasonings.
Piquin(pay-KEEN) Small, dried, red; extremely hot; simmer in cooked sauces, soups, stews.
PiroshkiSmall Russian meat pies, like empanadas, eaten for lunch or snacks.
PissaladiereA southern French pizza consisting of a thick bread crust covered with cooked onions flavored with garlic. The pizza is then topped with black olives and anchovies.
PitTo remove the seed from a piece of fruit by cutting around the sides of the fruit and pulling the seed away from the flesh.
(Or "stone.") To remove the pit or seed from a fruit or olive.
Pita breadFlat round bread made with or without a pocket.
PitaA round, Middle Eastern flat bread made from white or whole wheat flour. When a pita is split, the pocket may be filled to make a sandwich.
PithThe white cellular lining of the rind covering the flesh of citrus fruits.
Pizza[Italian] Flat baked dough covered with various combinations of tomatoes, olive oil, anchovies, sausage, cheese, etc.
Pizzaiola[French] meat or chicken, cooked in red wine, tomato sauce and flavored with garlic; plat du jour - dish of the day.
PizzellesThin decoratively patterned Italian wafer cookies that are made in an iron similar to a waffle iron. They may be flat or rolled into ice cream cones.
PlankAn oiled, grooved hard-wood platter, usually oak, on which meat is served and carved. Also, sometimes roasted on.
PlantainsAlso known as machos. The plantain is a green skinned, pink fleshed banana which is usually flatter and longer than a regular banana. It also contains more starch and less sugar. It is usually eaten fried, mashed, or in stews in South American, African, and West Indian cuisine.
Vegetable banana. Resemble bananas in size and shape but are starchier and not sweet. Both green (hard) and brown (ripe) are used in the cuisines of the Caribbean and South America. Ripe plantains can be peeled like bananas but not green ones. Most commonly sliced thin and fried. Found in some larger supermarkets, Hispanic and Caribbean markets. Also known as machos.
PlantsFour sacred plants of the Southwest Indians are beans, corn, squash and tobacco.
Plastic WrapA thin sheet of clear polymers such as polyvinyl chloride; clings to surfaces and is used to wrap foods for storage.
Platano macho[Spanish] plantain; a tropical plant resembling the banana; very large with a thick skin; the fruit is deeper yellow than that of the banana; cooked, unripe platana is eaten like a potato; when ripe, the skins are black, and this is when they are sweetest; platanas will ripen after being harvested.
Platano[Spanish] banana; coarse-textured banana that cannot be eaten raw.
PluckOffal; to remove the feathers from a domesticated or game bird.
Plugra butteralso known as European-style butter, has a higher butterfat and lower moisture content than regular butter, which makes pastries flakier and sauces smoother.
Plum SauceAlso known as duck sauce, plum sauce is a Chinese condiment made from plums, apricots, vinegar and sugar. It has a thick, jam-like consistency and tart-sweet flavor. Plum sauce is used predominately as a dipping sauce for roasted meats and fried appetizers.
An Asian sweet-and-sour sauce made from plums, apricots, sugar, and other seasonings. Sold in jars or cans, store tightly covered, in the refrigerator.
Plum tomatoesThese oval-shaped tomatoes have great flavor. They are the best sauce tomato, because is quite thick in comparison to the round tomato.
PlumA small to medium-sized ovoid or spherical stone fruit (Prunus domestica) that grows in clusters; has a smooth skin that can be yellow, green, red, purple or indigo blue, a juicy flesh, large pit and sweet flavor.
PoachSubmerging food into a hot liquid (approximately 1600 F-1800 F)
To cook in liquid held just below boiling so it just shimmers slightly on the surface. Example Puree:
To cook in a hot liquid, using precautions to retain shape. The temperature used varies with the food.
To cook food in liquid, at or just below the boiling point. For eggs, meat, or fish, the liquid is usually water or a seasoned stock; fruit is generally poached in a sugar syrup.
To cook food simmered in a liquid, just below the boiling point.
Poblano chiles"People chiles"; in dried form, known as ancho chiles; frequently used for chiles rellenos; dark green, almost black, ranging from mild to hot, they look like deflated bell peppers; normally roasted before using; when dried, it is called the ancho chile; in California it is usually called a pasilla chile; preferred choice for making chiles rellenos.
Poblano Chili PepperA dark, sometimes almost black green chili pepper with a mild flavor. Best known for its use in "Chili Rellanos".
Poblano(poh-BLAH-noh) Fresh, dark green or red; up to five inches long and three and one-half inches wide; medium-hot; always roasted before using for stuffing or rajas.
PoeleA method of cooking (usually in a covered pot) where foods are cooked in their own juices. Also referred to as butter roasting.
PoiA Hawaiian dish made from cooked taro root that has been pounded to a smooth paste and mixed with water.
Poisson[French] fish.
PoivradeMade with pepper.
Pole display (food industry term)An advertising display that is mounted on a pole and placed above a product, e.g., produce displays, meat signs, coffin cases signs.
PolentaA mush made from cornmeal, polenta may be eaten hot or cooled and fried. Polenta is a staple of northern Italy.
The Italian version of cornmeal mush. Coarsely ground yellow cornmeal is cooked with stock or water and flavored with onions, garlic, and cheese. Polenta may be eaten fresh out of the pot, as a perfect accompaniment to stews. Polenta may also be poured into a greased pan and allowed to set. It is then sliced, saut ed, and topped with cheese or tomato sauce.
Polish sausageAlso called "kielbasa," this is a highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish origin made from pork and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with garlic an other spices. It can be served cold or hot.
PollackThis low to moderate fat fish has firm, white, flesh with a delicate, somewhat sweet flavor. Pollack is often used to make imitation crab meat. Also known as "Coalfish" or "Saithe," this saltwater fish is a member of the cod family.
PolloSpanish term for chicken.
[Spanish] chicken.
PollyfishAny of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring and the shape of their jaws. "Also called "parrot fish."
Polyunsaturated FatA fatty acid with two or more double bonds between carbon atoms; the good kind of fat.
Pomegranate molasses[Middle Eastern] also known as pomegranate syrup. Condiment prepared from yellow sour pomegranates cooked with sugar. Provides fruity and tangy flavor to savory dishes.
PomegranateA red to purple fruit with thin leathery skin and hundreds of crunchy seeds encased in translucent, sweet-tart flesh. The seeds are separated from the flesh by a bitter membrane that should be discarded.
A strangely constructed fruit - a labyrinth of seeds wrapped in fruit buried in a mass of inedible flesh surrounded by a tough skin. The pulp and juice surrounding the tiny seeds have a sweet-tart flavor. Pomegranate juice is used in making Grenadine and pomegranate molasses is available in Middle Eastern stores.
PomfretThis small, high:fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavor. Found off the coast of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also called the "butterfish."
Pomidoro[Italian] tomato.
Pomme de terre[French] potato.
Pomme[French] apple.
PompanoThis saltwater fish is a succulent, fine:textured fish with a mild delicate flavor. This expensive, moderately fat fish is considered by many experts as America's finest fish.
Pone breadCorn bread.
PoneA round, flat food, such as corn pone.
PoochCowboy favorite of stewed tomatoes, sugar and biscuits.
PopoverIndian fry bread.
Poppy Seed or PoppyseedTiny bluish-gray seeds of the poppy plant. Poppy seeds are often sprinkled on food, used as a filling, or added to a variety of foods, such as cakes, breads, and salad dressings.
PorciniA large wild mushroom with a smooth cap and thick stem. Porcini mushrooms have an earthy flavor.
[Italian] also called c pes, these meaty, large-topped mushrooms are a treat. Most frequently sold dried but becoming increasingly available fresh.
PorgyAlso know as "Scup" or "Porgie." These saltwater fish are generally lean, and coarse:grained. Porgy is often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.
Widely known as sea bream, there are many different varieties of this fish family in the United States and around the world. The most popular United States porgy is the scup, which is found in Atlantic waters. Porgies have a firm, low-fat flesh with a delicate, mild flavor. Although some grow to 20 pounds, most fall into the 1/2- to 3-pound range. They're available fresh and frozen, and are generally sold whole. The porgy is suitable for almost any method of cooking, including baking, grilling and frying.
Pork chitterlingsThe small intestines of freshly slaughtered pigs. They are cleaned and simmered until tender. Chitterlings are served with sauce, added to soups, battered and fried, and used as sausage casings.
PorkThe flesh of domestic swine. Today's pork is leaner (1/3 fewer calories) and higher in protein than a decade ago. And with improved feeding techniques, trichinosis has become extremely rare. Most pork is slaughtered at 6 to 9 months.
The flesh of hogs, usually slaughtered under the age of 1 year.
PorridgeHot cooked (usually oatmeal) cereal.
PortabellaA very large crimini; the mushroom has a dense texture and a rich, meaty flavor.
Porter house steakA steak cut from the thick end of the tenderloin, or short loin, of beef.
A cut of meat from the rear end of the short loin. The name originates from the days when it was served in public alehouses that also served a dark beer called porter. It consists of a hefty chunk of tenderloin with an even heftier chunk of sirloin tip. Some folks like to remove the tenderloin to serve separately as filet mignon.
Portobello mushroomsEnormous version of cremini with robust flavor. Great when grilled, broiled, or saut ed.
Posole, PozoleHominy stew made with dried lime-treated corn and combined with pork and seasonings.
Corn that has been treated with slaked lime to remove the tough outer husks of the kernels, then dried; thick stew made with hominy as an ingredient; the stew usually includes pork and chiles; also another name for hominy. The base of the soup is water flavored with onions, tomatoes (or tomatillos), and herbs. Hominy is cooked into this broth and condiments include minced onion, avocado, lime wedges, oregano, queso fresco, and fried pork skin.
Postre[Spanish] dessert.
Pot Liquor, or Pot LikkerThe liquid left after cooking greens, vegetables, or other food. It's traditionally served with cornbread in the South.
Pot RoastA large piece of meat browned in fat quickly and then cooked in a covered pan.
Beef cooked in a manner similar to braising, but on top of the stove.
Pot Sticker WrappersVery thin sheets of dough made from flour, eggs and salt; used for small meat and vegetable filled dumplings known as pot stickers, as well as for won ton and egg rolls.
PotageFrench term for a thick soup intended to serve as a complete meal. It defines a soup with a thickness that is between consomme and soupe.
[French] thick soup.
PotassiumA mineral used primarily to assist the transmissions of nerve impulses and to develop protein. Good potassium sources include green vegetables, kiwi, bananas and other fruits.
Potato starch or flourStarch made from dried potatoes ground into flour. Find in some Scandinavian shops, delicatessens and health food stores.
PotatoThe starchy tuber of a succulent, nonwoody annual plant (Solanum turberosum) native to the Andes Mountains; cooked like a vegetable, made into flour, processed for chips and used for distillation mash.
Pot-au-feuA combination of stock with meat, bones, and vegetables, cooked together but often served as separate courses.
PothookBent iron for hanging a kettle over the fire.
Pots de cr meSmall custards, variously flavored.
Potted meatA meat that has been cooked and ground to a fine paste, lightly seasoned, and packed.
Poule[French] chicken.
Poulet[French] young chicken.
Poultry SeasoningA blend of herbs and spices, poultry seasoning usually contains sage, celery seed, thyme, savory, marjoram, onion, and pepper.
Equal amounts of dried sage, dried thyme and dried marjoram.
PoultryAny domesticated bird used for food; the USDA recognizes six kinds of poultry: chicken, duck, goose, guinea, pigeon and turkey.
PoundA basic measure of weight in the U.S. system; 16 ounces = 1 pound, 1 pound = 453.6 grams or 0.4536 kilogram .
Prairie coalCow or buffalo manure, dried and used in campfires.
Prairie strawberriesRed beans; also called Arizona strawberries.
PralineA confection made with pecans and brown sugar.
In French cookery this is a powder or paste made of caramelized almonds and/or hazelnuts. American cookery refers to a candy consisting of caramel and pecans. Candy eaten in the Southwest; made from brown sugar and pecans.
PrawnTerm commonly used for any large shrimp, although a true prawn has a thinner body and longer legs than a shrimp, and an average market length of 3 inches or 4 inches.
For culinary purposes, the same as shrimp. In the U.S., large shrimp are sometimes called prawns. The true prawn is a small shellfish closely related to shrimp, but it is European.
PreheatHeating the empty oven to the recommended temperature before placing the product to be baked in it.
To allow the oven or pan to get to a specified temperature before adding the food to be cooked.
PreserveTo prepare foods for long storage. Some ways to preserve food are drying, refrigeration, freezing, canning, curing, pickling, and smoking.
PreservesA thick cooked mixture of whole or cut up fruit, sugar, and usually pectin.
Fruits or vegetables, whole or chopped, simmered in a sugary syrup.
Pressure CookerA cooking pot made to cook food under pressure. The pressure cooker has a locking lid and a valve system to regulate the internal pressure. Cooking time may be reduced by as much as 50% without destroying the nutritional value of the food.
PrickTo make small holes in the surface of a food, usually using the tines of a fork. Pie crust is usually pricked.
Prickly pearEgg-size fruit of the prickly pear cactus; the fruit is referred to as tuna; flesh is garnet-colored. Often made in to prickly pear jelly.
PrimaveraItalian for "spring style," this term refers to the use of fresh vegetables as a seasoning or garnish in a dish.
Prime RibMeats found in supermarkets labeled "prime rib" are most often actually rib roasts.
Printanier[French] garnish of spring vegetables.
Processed cheeseSome amount of cheese cooked together with dyes, gums, emulsifiers and stabilizers (American cheese, Laughing Cow, rambol).
ProfiteroleTiny cream puff, filled with sweet or savory mixtures, served as dessert or hors d'oeuvres.
Proof BoxA sealed cabinet that allows control over both temperature and humidity.
ProofIn bread baking, this term indicates the period of time a product is allowed to rise after it is shaped and placed on or in pans. Products are usually proofed until doubled in size, or when a finger, lightly placed on the side of the loaf, leaves an indentation. Products are "proofed" in a humid, draft-free, 950F to 1000F place. In homes, a barely damp, clean, non-terry cloth towel or plastic wrap sprayed with pan spray may be lightly placed over the product to prevent the crust from drying. Some ovens have a proofing feature. Follow the manufacturer's use guide.
1) To "prove" yeast is alive by dissolving it in warm water and setting it aside in a warm place for 5 to 10 minutes. If it swells and becomes bubbly, it is alive. 2) Proof is an indication of the amount of alcoholic content in a liquor. In the U.S., proof is twice the percentage of alcohol. If a liquor is labeled 80 proof, it contains 40% alcohol
ProsciuttoAn unsmoked, seasoned, salt:cured, and air:dried ham. The meat is pressed to produce a firm texture, then sliced very thin. "Parma ham" is the true prosciutto. "Prosciutto cotto" is cooked ham, "Prosciutto crudo" is raw.
The Italian word for ham.
The Italian word for ham, usually referring to the raw cured hams of Parma. Though once impossible to obtain in the United States due to USDA regulations, fine prosciuttos from Italy and Switzerland are now being imported. These hams are called prosciutto crudo. Cooked hams are called prosciutto cotto. Prosciutto is best when sliced paper thin served with ripe figs or wrapped around grissini.
ProteinProtein can be found in both animal and vegetable sources, and provides the body with energy while performing a large number of other functions.
Provencale[French] in the Provence style; served with a spicy garnish of tomatoes, mushrooms and garlic in oil.
Provolone CheesePale yellow, sharp Italian cheese originating in the southern province of Catania, made from cow's or buffalo milk. Most provolone is aged for two to three months, though some is aged six months to a year or more.
PruneA dried red or purple plum.
dried plum.
Puchero[Spanish] stew.
PuddingLike custards, thick, creamy mixtures of milk, sugar, and flavorings. Custards are thickened with eggs, puddings with cornstarch or flour.
Puerco[Spanish] pork.
[Spanish] leek.
Puesto[Spanish] a stand in the market or on the street.
Puff paste, pastryLayers upon layers of pastry dough, each separated by a film of butter. Time-consuming but fairly easy to make.
A rich, multilayered French pastry made with butter, flour, eggs, and water. Puff pastry is made by placing chilled butter pats between layers of dough, then rolling the dough, folding it in thirds and letting it rest. The process is repeated several times, producing a dough with hundreds of layers of dough and butter. When baked, the moisture in the butter creates steam, which causes the dough to separate into flaky layers.
Pulla(POO-yah) Dried, up to five inches long, light reddish brown; hot; used like arbol in sauces and for seasoning soups and stews.
PulpThe succulent flesh of a fruit.
Pulque[Spanish] beer made by fermenting the juice of the maguey cactus (century plant).
PulseAn action used with processors and blenders. If a recipe tells you to pulse, turn the start button on and off rapidly serveral times or until the ingredients are appropriately processed.
PulverizeTo reduce to powder or dust by pounding, crushing or grinding.
To break a food down to powder by crushing or grinding.
PumateItalian for sun-dried tomatoes.
[Italian] sun-dried tomatoes.
PumpernickelA medium- to coarsely ground, rye flour, light brown in color. It may be labeled "medium rye." A mixture of rye and wheat flour used to produce a distinctive bread. Molasses are usually used to add color and flavor.
A course black bread made with rye flour.
Pumpkin seeds[Sp.] pepitas; husked inner seed of the pumpkin; seeds are roasted and used as a snack or garnish; when seeds are roasted and ground, used as a thickener and flavoring agent.
PumpkinA spherical winter squash with a flattened top and base, size ranging from small to very large, fluted orange shell (yellow and green varieties are also available), yellow to orange flesh with a mild sweet flavor and numerous flat, edible seeds.
Punch dowIn reference to bread dough - when dough has doubled in size or when a dent remains after two fingers are lightly pressed ½ inch into the dough, make a fist and push it into the center of the dough. Pull the edges of the dough to the center and turn the dough over. Cover and let rest or rise again before shaping.
To deflate a risen dough. With your hand, press on the dough until the gas escapes.
PureeFood that has been mashed or sieved.
A thick soup made from a pureed vegetable base. To finely blend and mash food to a smooth, lump-free consistency. You can puree foods in a blender, food processor, or food mill.
Purse[French] sieved raw or cooked food; thick vegetable soup which is passed through a sieve or an electric blender or food processor.
PurslaneA small plant with reddish stems and rounded leaves. Purslane can be eaten cooked or raw and has a mild flavor.
Pink-stemmed purslane weed used as a vegetable and in salads.
PuttanescaA piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile flakes.
A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile flakes. The hot pasta is tossed in this sauce prior to serving. Some recipes leave the ingredients raw, allowing the heat of the pasta to bring out the flavors.
Pyramide CheeseA truncated pyramid is the shape of this small French chevre that is often coated with dark gray edible ash. The texture can range from soft to slightly crumbly and depending upon its age, in flavor from mild to sharp. It is wonderful served with crackers or bread and fruit.
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QuahogThe American Indian name for the East Coast hard shell clam. It is also used to describe the largest of these hard shell clams. Other names used are chowder clam or large clam.
QuailA small game bird of the partridge family that resembles a small, plump chicken. Known also as "bobwhites" and "partridges." The flesh is white and delicately flavored. Most quail today are raised on bird farms.
Quark[German] cottage cheese. Soured/curdled milk turned into a very loose cottage cheese-like substance.
QuartA measure of volume in the U.S. system; 32 fluid ounces equal 1 quart and 4 quarts equal one gallon.
Quatre-epicesA French spice mixture containing ground cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, and pepper. This mixture is used to season stews and pates.
Quelitas[Spanish] lamb's quarters; pigweed; goosefoot; wild spinach; wild greens; bean and spinach dish seasoned with bacon and chile.
Quemar, quemado[Spanish] to burn; burned.
Quenches[French] Light savory dumplings made of meat or fish and used as a garnish or in a delicate sauce.
QuenelleA poached dumpling, usually made of meat or fish.
A dumpling made from fish or meat forcemeat then poached.
QuesadillaA flour tortilla filled, folded, then cooked. The filling usually contains shredded cheese, but may also include ground meat, refried beans, etc.
[Spanish] sandwich; flour tortilla turnover which is usually stuffed with cheese, then toasted, fried or baked. Originally a corn masa empanada filled with meat then deep fried. Modern versions found throughout restaurants in the US are made with flour tortillas that are filled with cheese and perhaps beans, meat, salsa. or vegetables, and folded over when cooked. Usually pan-fried or cooked under a broiler.
Queso anejo[Spanish] aged cheese; salty white cheese slightly similar to feta in flavor, but since it is not brined, its flavor is somewhat milder; a good substitute is grated feta cheese.
Queso asadero[Spanish] also known as quesilla de Oaxaca; a rubbery-textured cheese that is pulled and twisted into strands; traditionally used in fillings where it becomes stringy when heated; whole-milk mozzarella, Monterey jack or Muenster may be substituted.
Queso blanco[Spanish] fresh white cheese, often called queso fresco.
Queso cotijaSharp, firm and good for grating. Simply sprinkle it on top of beans, chili or other dishes to enhance their flavor.
Queso flameado[Spanish] flamed cheese; queso fundido (melted cheese); cheese roasted over a flame.
Queso Fresco CheeseA fresh Mexican cheese similar to farmer cheese or cottage cheese. This white, slightly salty cheese is available in Latin markets and many supermarkets; also called queso blanco.
Usually made from a combination of cow's milk and goat's milk, it tastes like a mild feta cheese. It crumbles easily and tastes good in salads or with beans.
[Spanish] cheese which has a texture similar to farmer's cheese; crumbly white cheese made from partially skimmed milk; lightly tangy and very subtle; usually sold in small round cakes; used for fillings and crumbled into soups and over sauces; often called queso blanco; white Cheddar or a mixture of farmer's and feta cheese are fairly good substitutes.
Queso OaxacaAlso known as quesillo, this soft, mild cheese is perfect for quesadillas. It is similar in texture to string cheese, and should e pulled apart into thin strings before being put on the tortilla.
Queso panelaThis soft white cheese often is served as part of an appetizer or snack tray. It absorbs other flavors easily. Like queso blanco, it doesn't melt.
QuesoThe Spanish word for cheese.
[Spanish] cheese.
Quiche Lorraine[French] A custard pie containing cheese and ham or bacon.
QuicheThis dish is a pastry crust filled with a savory egg custard which usually includes cheese, seasonings, vegetables, and other ingredients. It's typically baked in a shallow, straight-sided, fluted baking dish.
[French] a savory, open top pie made of eggs, milk or cream, and anything else within reach. The most famous of these is the quiche Lorraine of Alsace, made with bacon and Gruyere cheese.
Quick breadBread that is quick to make because it doesn't require kneading or rising time.
Quick bread is made with baking soda or baking powder, which is why it's called "quick."
Quick rising yeastQuick rising yeast causes a dough to rise in half the the time. Be sure to follow manufacturer's instructions for best results. Find in any supermarket.
QuinceThis yellow-skinned fruit looks and tastes like a cross between an apple and a pear. Its texture and flavor make it better cooked than raw. Its high pectin content make it ideal for use in jams, jellies, and preserves.
This yellow-skinned fruit looks and tastes like a cross between an apple and a pear. Its texture and flavor make it better cooked than raw. Its high pectin content makes it ideal for use in jams, jellies and preserves. Introduced to Latin America by the Spanish and/or Portuguese; looks like a large pear, but is hard and very sour; usually cooked with sugar, after which it becomes faint pink.
Quinoa flourA gluten-free flour made from grinding quinoa grain. It is highly nutritious and yields a tender, moist crumb in cookies, pancakes, waffles, and fruitcakes.
QuinoaQuinoa is a protein rich grain which is also high in unsaturated fat and lower in carbohydrates than most grains. It may be used in any dish in place of rice or similar grains.
Pronounced (KEEN-wah). A natural high-protein whole grain grown in South America. Originally used by the Incas, it can be substituted for rice in most recipes. It is a unique grain in that it serves as a complete protein containing essential amino acids.
Quota (food industry term)A benchmark used to establish the quantity of product expected to be sold during a promotion.
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Rabanos[Spanish] radishes.
RabbitRabbit meat is mostly white, fine textured and mildly flavored. Domesticated rabbit is generally plumper and less strongly flavored that wild rabbits. Rabbit can be prepared in any manner suitable for chicken.
RaccoonA North American mammal that served as an important food source for pioneers. The flesh is mostly dark meat, and the fat is strong in flavor and aroma. Young raccoons are usually roasted; older raccoons should be braised or stewed.
RadicchioA variety of chicory, radicchio leaves are red with white ribs, and are slightly bitter. The leaves are most often used in salads, but may be grilled, sauteed, or baked.
A member of the chicory family with red and white leaves. The different varieties range from mild to extremely bitter. The round Verona variety are the most common in the US. Radicchio is peppery, crunchy, and, like all members of the chicory clan, it usually has bright red leaves and a tight head. Used most often in salads, but is quite suitable to cooked preparations.bitter
RadishA member of the mustard family grown for its root (Raphanus sativus); generally, the crisp white flesh has a mild to peppery flavor and is usually eaten raw.
RagoutRagout is derived from the French verb ragouter, which means "to stimulate the appetite." A ragout is seasoned stew, usually made with meat, poultry, fish, and often vegetables.
A French term for a well seasoned stew made of meat, fish, or vegetables.
RaguMeaty, slow-cooked tomato sauce, ideal with lasagne, raviloi, and other fresh pasta.
RaisinA sweet dried grape.
RaitaA yogurt salad consisting of yogurt and a variety of chopped vegetables, fruits and flavored with garam masala, herbs and black mustard seeds. Raita originates from East India.
Rajas[Spanish] strips; usually refers to strips or ribbons of roasted or sauteed green chiles and onion.
RamekinA small baking dish resembling a souffle dish, a ramekin usually measures from 3 to 6 inches in diameter and is used for individual servings.
Individual ovenproof baking dishes made of ceramic, porcelain or glass and used in the preparation of custards and other miniature sweet or savory dishes.
Ramen NoodlesFine Japanese deep-fried wheat noodles, which are commonly available packaged with a broth mix.
RampA wild onion which resembles the leek, the ramp has a strong onion-garlic flavor. It may be used as a substitute for leeks, scallions, or onions.
Ranchero[Spanish] country-style.
Ras el HanoutThis is a powdered spice mixture, used in Arabic and north African cooking, with a sweet and pungent flavor. See the definition under charmoula for a description of the ingredients and its applications.
RascasseA type of scorpion fish which achieved glory in Provence for its starring role in the region's famed saffron-scented bouillabaisse.
RasherA strip of meat, such as bacon. Rasher may also mean a serving of 2 to 3 thin slices of meat.
RaspberryA small ovoid or conical-shaped berry (Rubus idaeus) composed of many connecting drupelets (tiny individual sections of fruit, each with its own seed) surrounding a central core; has a sweet, slightly acidic flavor; the three principal varieties are black, golden and red.
RatafiaFlavoring made from bitter almonds; liqueur made from fruit kernels; tiny macaroon.
RatatouilleA French vegetable stew that combines a variety of vegetables and herbs simmered in olive oil; can be served hot or cold as a side dish or appetizer.
[French] a vegetable stew consisting of onions, eggplant, sweet peppers, zucchini, and tomatoes flavored with garlic, herbs, and olive oil.
RavigoteA velout sauce with added onions, herbs, white stock and vinegar; served cold.
RavioliItalian for little wraps; used to describe small squares or rounds of pasta stuffed with meat, cheese or vegetables.
[Italian] little pasta pillows filled with cheese, meat, vegetable(s), or other fillings served in broth or with sauce.
Raw sugarA coarse, tan granulated product similar to turbinado sugar; an intermediate product in cane sugar production. The raw sugar is then shipped to a refinery for final processing. Raw sugar is available to consumers.
Sugar that hasn't been refined enough to achieve a granulated quality. It looks like coffee crystals. This coarse sugar is harder to dissolve, making it a nice choice for sprinkling on foods.
Sugar that has not been refined. Appears much like coffee crystals. Coarse or raw sugar is more difficult to dissolve. Makes a wonderful garnish.
Raw-milk cheeseMade with unpasteurized milk (parmigiano reggiano, Swiss gruyere, French roquefort, traditional cheddars).
RayThis kite:shaped fish features edible fins. The fish is firm, white, and sweet; similar to the texture and taste of scallop. Also known as a "Ray."
Razor clamA long, thin, razor-shaped clam, considered one of the most delicious of clams; eaten raw or cooked.
Recado[Spanish] seasoning.
Recess cake tinSponge flan pan.
Receta[Spanish] recipes.
RecipeA set of written instructions for producing a specific food or beverage; also known as a formula (especially with regards to baked goods).
ReconstituteTo restore concentrated foods such as dry milk or frozen orange juice to their normal state by adding water.
To restore condensed, dehydrated or concentrated foods to their original strength with the addition of liquid, usually water.
To bring a dried, dehydrated food back to its original consistency by adding a liquid.
Red BeansDark red beans similar to red kidney beans, but smaller; popular in chili and as refried beans. They stay firm when cooked and are excellent when accompanying rice. They are available dried in most supermarkets; also known as Mexican Red Beans.
Sometimes referred to as "the Mexican strawberry" in the Southwest; brighter in color than the pinto bean and lacks the surface streaks of the slightly smaller pinto bean; similar to and interchangeable with pinto beans. Medium-size, dark red beans akin to kidneys and pintos.
Red Chili Paste with GarlicSee "Garlic and Red Chili Paste."
Red Curry PasteA spicy condiment used in Thai cooking. Rather hot, with it's main ingredient being red chili peppers. Found in some supermarkets and Oriental markets.
Red Delicious AppleA sweet, juicy, red variety of apple; perfect for a snack, but does not cook well. See also apples.
Red pepper flakesThe dried flakes of dried ripe red hot chile pepper. Most are quite hot.
Red perchThis important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.
Red snapperThis is the most popular of a few hundred species of snapper. This is a lean, firm:textured saltwater fish. Some species of rockfish and tilefish are also called snappers, but are not.
A saltwater fish with red eyes, reddish-pink skin and very lean, firm, white flesh. The average market weight is 2 to 8 pounds, and fresh snapper is available whole, or cut into steaks or fillets.
Red wheatIn the U.S., wheat is classified into six classes - three of the classes have a bran coat that is considered "red" in color. These classes are hard red winter wheat, hard red spring wheat, and soft red winter wheat. Also, see glossary listing for White wheat.
Redeye GravyA southern gravy made by adding water and sometimes hot coffee to ham drippings. It's usually spooned over biscuits which are served with the ham.
Redeye salmonPrized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a firm, red flesh. Also known as the "sockeye salmon."
RedfishThis important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.
RedheadA saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called "California Sheesphead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.
Reduce or reductionThe technique of cooking liquids down so that some of the water they contain evaporates. Reduction is used to concentrate the flavor of a broth or sauce and, at times, to help thicken the sauce by concentrating ingredients such as natural gelatin.
To boil a liquid until a portion of it has evaporated. Reducing intensifies the flavor and results in a thicker liquid.
To cook a liquid, usually a sauce or stock, over high heat, thereby decreasing its volume and intensifying its flavor.
Reduced CholesterolA food containing a minimum of 25% less cholesterol and 2g or less of saturated fat per serving than reference food.
Reduced Or Fewer CaloriesA food containing a minimum of 25% fewer kcal per serving than a reference food.
Reduced Or Less FatA food containing a minimum of 25% less fat per serving than a reference food.
A food containing a minimum of 25% less saturated fat per serving than a reference food.
Reduced Or Less SodiumA food containing a minimum of 25% less sodium than a reference food.
Reduced SugarA food containing at least 25 percent less sugar per serving than a reference food.
Reduction sauceA sauce that uses as its base the pan juices that are created from the stove-top cooking or oven-roasting of meat, fish, poultry, or vegetables.
RefreshTo rinse just:boiled vegetables under very cold water to stop their cooking.
To pour cold water over freshly cooked vegetables to prevent further cooking and to retain color.
Refrito[Spanish] refried; usually describes beans that are cooked, mashed, and fried in lard.
RehydrateTo soak, cook, or use other procedures with dehydrated foods to restore water lost during drying.
Reis[German] rice.
RelishA cooked or pickled sauce usually made with vegetables or fruits and often used as a condiment; can be smooth or chunky, sweet or savory and hot or mild.
Sharp or spicy sauce made with fruit or vegetables which adds a piquant flavor to other foods.
Relleno[Spanish] stuffed.
RemouladeSpicy sauce for seafood consisting of mayonnaise, mustard, chopped pickles, tarragon, parsley, chives and spices. It is served cold with shellfish and can sometimes include anchovies.
This classic French sauce (or salad dressing) is made by combining mayonnaise (usually homemade) with mustard, capers and chopped gherkins, herbs and anchovies. It is served chilled as an accompaniment to cold meat, fish and shellfish.
RenderTo extract the fat from meat by cooking over low heat. Rendered fat is strained of meat particles after cooking.
To cook a food over low heat until it releases its fat.
RennetAn extract from the fourth stomach of lambs and calves used in cheese making to coagulate milk or in making junket pudding. There are also rennets obtained from vegetables such as cardoons.
RenninAn acid-producing enzyme obtained from a calf's stomach. Rennin aids in coagulating milk and is used in cheese-making and junket; available in many supermarkets in powdered or tablet form.
Renuevos de rastrojo[Spanish] tumbleweed shoots; they have a wild bean flavor and can be used as a vegetable or in salads.
Repollo[Spanish] cabbage.
Res[Spanish] beef.
ResourcesMaterials, time, money and abilities available for use that can be drawn upon for aid or to take care of a need.
Resquesin[Spanish] curd cheese; often called queso fresco or queso blanco.
RestingTo allow a roasted meat to sit for 20 to 30 minutes after removing from the oven before serving. Roasted meats should always be loosely covered with aluminum foil during resting to keep them warm, but allow the juices to distribute fully throughout the meat.
Revoltijo de huevos[Spanish] scrambled eggs.
Rework (food industry term)Perishables: To crisp or trim a product that looks case- worn. Grocery: To re-affix labels. To refine a category or shelf set.
RhubarbA celery-like vegetable we treat as a fruit (in fact a court case once decided it was a fruit). Never eat the leaves of a rhubarb, which contain poisonous levels of oxalic acid.
A perennial plant with thick red stalks and large green leaves which are poisonous. The stalks have a tart flavor and are often used in pies and tarts.
Ri ones[Spanish] kidneys.
Rib steakA steak cut from the rib portion, that part of the beef from which the standing rib roast or rolled rib roast is also taken; a club steak.
RibA single stalk of a bunch of celery, also called a stalk.
RibbonThe term describing the texture of egg yolks which have been beaten with sugar. When beaten sufficiently, the mixture forms a thick "ribbon" when the beater is held up over the bowl. The ribbon makes a pattern atop the batter which disappears into the batter after a few seconds.
Ribeye steakA tender, flavorful beef steak that comes from the rib section between the chuck and the short loin.
Rice noodlesCommon in Southeast Asia, we can find these dried in supermarkets and in Asian markets. Can be served after soaking in hot water, but best when soaked and then boiled quickly.
Rice Paper WrappersCircular sheets made from rice flour measuring approximately 8 inches in diameter, rice paper wrappers are brittle and translucent. They must be softened by dipping in hot water for a few seconds and draining. Once softened they can be used to make fresh Vietnamese-style salad rolls or deep-fried spring rolls.
Rice paper[China] an edible paper made from rice and used to wrap dumplings, Vietnamese summer rolls, and other Asian foods; edible, glossy white paper made from the pith of a tree grown in China. Frequently used for macaroon base.
Rice Stick NoodlesMade from rice flour and water, these noodles are translucent when cooked. They are usually softened by soaking in hot water for 10-15 minutes before cooking with other ingredients. Fine rice stick noodles can also be deep fried to create a crispy garnish often used in Chinese chicken salads.
Rice sticksClear noodles made from ground rice. Available in varying widths. Found in most Asian markets and larger supermarkets.
Rice VinegarUsed in both Japanese and Chinese cooking, rice vinegar is made from fermented rice and comes in several varieties, each differing in intensity and tartness. In general they are all fairly mild compared to European and American-style vinegars. They can be used in dressings, marinades, as dipping sauces and condiments.
Delicately flavored vinegar with lower acidity than many other commercial vinegars, which makes it nice for vinaigrettes. Sold in most supermarkets and all Asian stores.
Rice WineA clear, sweet wine made from fermented rice. Rice wines are usually lower in alcohol and can be served hot or cold. Sake and Mirin are two popular Japanese rice wines. Chinese versions include Chia Fan, Hsiang Hsueh, Shan Niang and Yen Hung.
Called shao hsing in Chinese markets. A good dry sherry is a fine substitute.
Rice, ArborioOne of the Italian medium-grain rices used to make risotto. Once grown only in Italy, Arborio has become so popular it is now being cultivated in California and Texas.
Rice, AromaticA broad term for a group of mostly long-grain rices with a pronounced nutty aroma. Basmati, Texmati, Wild Pecan and Jasmine are all aromatic rices.
Rice, BlackRice with a black-colored bran layer, popular in Asian cuisine, that sometimes lightens to a deep purple when cooked. There are many varieties of black rice from China, Thailand and Indonesia.
Rice, BrownRice that has not had its bran layer removed and therefore has a slight chewy texture and nutty taste. Long-, medium- and short-grain brown and brown basmati are four popular varieties.
Rice, PearlA short-grain sticky rice, sometimes called sushi rice. It is grown across Asia, California and Arkansas.
Rice, redRice with a reddish-brown bran layer, a nutty taste and chewy consistency. Red rice is often marketed as Wehani (also called Russet), Bhutanese red rice and Thai red rice.
Rice, ValenciaValencia rice (sometimes sold as paella rice), is a large white oval grain. Grown in Spain, it is similar to Arborio. It's the rice used for paella, the Spanish dish that pairs rice with seafood, chicken, rabbit or chorizo and vegetables.
Rice, WildWild rice looks like rice but is actually an aquatic grass. Native to North America, today most wild rice is cultivated in man-made paddies from the northern Great Lakes to California.
Rice1. Rice (verb) To press cooked food through a utensil called a ricer. The food comes out in "strings" which vaguely resemble rice. 2. The starch seed of a semiaquatic grass (Oryza sativa), probably originating in Southeast Asia and now part of most cuisines; divided into three types based on seed size; long-grain, medium-grain and short-grain, each of which is available in different processed forms such as white rice and brown rice.
Long-grain rice (including basmati rice) cooks in firm, dry kernels; short-grain or medium-grain, rice cooks up moist and slightly sticky, as its outer outer layer absorbs more liquid than long-grain rice.
Rice-flour NoodlesExtremely thin noodles, resembling translucent white hairs, made from rice flour. They explode upon contact with hot oil, becoming a tangle of light, crunchy strands. They are a traditional ingredient in Chinese chicken salad, and can be pre-soaked and used in soups and stir-fries.
RicerA plunger-operated utensil that is the best tool for making mashed potatoes. It also rices potatoes for potato dumplings.
Ricotta CheeseRicotta is a soft, unripened Italian curd cheese. It is the by product of the whey of other cheeses. It is sweet in flavor and grainy in texture. Ricotta is used often in Italian sweets (most notably Cassata alla Sicilian) and in savory dishes as pasta stuffing.
Ricotta Salata[Italian] a lightly salted cheese produced from sheep milk that has been pressed and dried.
Ricotta[Italian] rich, fresh, moist cheese resembling cottage cheese, that may be made with whole or skim milk. Originally Ricotta was made from sheep's milk.
RiddlingAn important step in removing sediment from Champagne. Bottles are placed in racks and then turned by hand or machine over weeks or months until they are upside down and the sediment has settled on top of the corks, whereby the sediment is readily removed.
RigatoniA large, grooved pasta. Rigatoni's ridges and holes are perfect with any sauce, from cream or cheese to the chunkiest meat sauces.
Italian for large groove and used to describe large grooved, slightly curved pasta tubes.
[Italian] large pasta tubes with ribbed sides.
RijsttafelA Dutch word, meaning "rice table." It is a Dutch version of an Indonesian meal consisting of hot rice accompanied by several (sometimes 20 or 40) small, well-seasoned side dishes of seafoods, meats, vegetables, fruits, sauces, condiments, etc.
RilletteA coarse, highly spiced spread made of meat or poultry and always served cold. This is called potted meat because rillettes are often covered with a layer of lard and stored for a period of time to age the mixture.
Rind, rindfleisch[German] beef.
The tough outer peel of a food.
Ring tinBaking pan
Ripened (aged) cheeseThe drained curds are cured by heat, bacteria and soaking. Salt, spices and herbs or natural dyes (certain cheddars) may be added. Aging in a controlled environment begins.
Ris[French] sweetbreads.
RisottoRice sauteed in butter then cooked and stirred as stock is slowly added in portions. As each addition of stock is absorbed, another is added until the rice is creamy and tender. Vegetables, meat, seafood, herbs, cheese, wine, and other ingredients may be added.
A classic dish of Northern Italy whose preparation of rice results in a creamy liaison with stock and butter. Usually made with Arborio rice. This may be served as a first course, main course, or side dish and embellished with meat, seafood, cheese, or vegetables. The best known version of this dish is Risotto a la Milanese, with saffron and Parmagiano Reggiano cheese.
Small pies similar to empanadas and piroshki. They are filled with meat, vegetables, or cheese and deep fried.
Ristra[Spanish] string of red chiles for drying in the sun.
RoastSurrounding food with hot air, either in an oven or over a fire-usually applies to meat, poultry, game, or vegetables/potatoes; a dry-heat cooking method
To cook in an uncovered pan in the oven to produce a well:browned exterior and a moister, cooked interior. During roasting, no liquid (such as water or wine) comes into contact with the food. Example
To cook uncovered in hot air. Meat usually is roasted in an oven or over coals, ceramic briquettes, gas flame, or electric coils. The term also applies to foods such as corn or potatoes cooked in hot ashes, under coals, or on heated stones or metal.
To cook a food in an open pan in the oven, with no added liquid.
Roasted Garlic ProcessCut the top third of the garlic head off and discard it. Drizzle the remainder with olive oil and put it in aluminum foil. Bake in a 400 degree F oven until edges of the garlic are caramelized (about 40 min.).
RoasterA size classification for a chicken about 5 pounds in weight and from 10 to 20 weeks old.
RoastingCooking method utilizing the oven with radiant heat, or on a spit over or under an open flame.
Róbalo[Spanish] bass.
RobertA spicy brown sauce containing onions and vinegar, served with game and other meats.
RocamboleRocambole is similar to both garlic and leeks. It looks like a leek yet has a taste similar to garlic and is found predominantly in Europe.
Rock Cornish HenA hybrid chicken, Rock Cornish Hens are very small. The average whole hen is from 1 to 1 1/2 pounds.
Rock SaltA crystalline form of salt that is mixed with cracked ice to freeze ice cream.
RockfishA low:fat fish of the Pacific Coast. There are two categories
Firm, white- and sweet-fleshed fish that is the West Coast equivalent of red snapper. Tasty a highly versatile, although not sturdy enough to grill, then can be considered and all-purpose fish.
Rockmelon[Great Britain] Cantaloupe.
RoeA seafood delicacy with two varieties
Fish eggs. This delicacy falls into two categories-hard roe and soft roe. Hard roe is female fish eggs, while soft roe (also called white roe) is the milt of male fish. Salting roe transforms it into caviar. Roe is marketed fresh, frozen and canned.
A word used to refer to either a female fish's eggs or male fish's milt, or sperm. May come from carp, mackerel, or herring, but Americans seem to focus on the roe of shad. Roe should smell fresh and be firm. Milt of the male fish is called soft roe. Eggs of the female fish are called hard roe. Shellfish roe, called coral, because of its color.
RoggenbrotRye bread.
Rognoni[Italian] kidneys.
Rognons[French] kidneys.
Rojo[Spanish] red.
RollTo coat lightly with a powdery substance; to dredge.
Rolling BoilA very fast boil that doesn't slow when stirred.
Rolling MincerA tool with several circular blades arranged in a row with a handle. The mincer is used by rolling the device over vegetables and herbs in a back and forth manner.
Rolling PinA cylindrical kitchen utensil with many uses, which include rolling pastry, crushing bread crumbs, and flattening other foods. Though the most common is hardwood, rolling pins may be made from other materials, such as ceramic, marble, metal, and plastic.
Romaine (Cos) lettuceThis lettuce has long, narrow leaves, crunchy ribs and a slight tang. Also called Cos lettuce because of its origin on the Aegean island of Cos.
Romano CheeseNamed for the city of Rome, this hard grana cheese has a brittle texture and pale yellow-white color; mostly used for grating after aging for one year.
Romano[Italian] prepared in the style of Rome.
Romero[Spanish] rosemary.
RompopeMexican eggnog.
Roquefort CheeseOne of the oldest and best-known cheeses in the world, this French cheese made from sheep's milk is considered the prototype of blue cheeses.
Rosbif[French] roast beef.
Rose water; rosewater[Middle East] an aromatic liquid made by distilling rose petals. Frequent found in pastries of the Middle East.
RosefishThis important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.
RosemaryAn herb (Rosmarinus officinalis) with silver-green, needle-shaped leaves, a strong flavor reminiscent of lemon and pine and a strong, sharp camphor-like aroma; available fresh and dried.
Rosette and Rosette IronA fried pastry made by dipping a rosette iron into a thin (usually sweet) batter then into hot, deep fat. The fried pastries are then drained and sprinkled with a mixture of cinnamon and sugar. The rosette iron is a metal rod with a heat-proof handle. Decorative shapes--to be dipped in the batter--are attached to the end.
RostiA Swiss potato pancake made from cooked potatoes, sometimes flavored with bacon.
Róti[French] roast.
Rotini("Spirals" or "Twists"): This pasta's twisted shape holds bits of meat, vegetables and cheese, so it works well with any sauce, or you can use it to create fun salads, baked casseroles, or stir-fry meals.
RotisserieA device which contains a spit with prongs. Food (usually meat or poultry) is impaled on the the spit, fastened securely then cooked. Most rotisseries are motorized so they automatically turn the food as it cooks.
[French] rotating spit used for roasting or grilling meat or poultry.
RouilleA thick sauce similar to aioli, made of dried chiles, garlic, and olive oil. Rouille is traditionally served with bouillabaisse and soup de poisson. Other recipes also add saffron and tomatoes.
RouladeA thin piece of meat which is stuffed with a filling, secured with picks or string, then browned and baked.
[French] rolled meat, chocolate cake, vegetables, etc.
Round steakMeat from the thick central portion of the hind leg.
RouxA mixture of fat and flour which is blended and cooked slowly over low heat until the desired consistency or color is reached. Roux is used as a base for thickening sauces.
[French] a mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews. Though usually made with butter, roux is also made with bacon or poultry fats, margarine, and vegetable oil. The mixture is cooked for a brief time to remove the raw taste of the starch from the flour. Longer cooking results in a darker color, which is favorable in Creole cooking where roux are cooked for long periods until they reach a dark brown color with a nut-like flavor and aroma.
Royal IcingAn icing which hardens when dried. Royal icing is made with confectioners' sugar, egg whites, flavoring, and sometimes food coloring.
RuoteWheel shaped pasta. Ruote is Italian for "cartwheels."
Russe, a lServed with sour cream.
Russian dressingBasically a simple mixture of mayo and ketchup.
RutabagaA member of the cabbage family with firm, pale-yellow flesh and a slightly sweet flavor. Also known as a Swedish turnip.
A root vegetable that is not a turnip, but is treated like one, the rutabaga (also sold under the name "Swede" or Swedish turnip) is larger and somewhat coarser in texture than its cousin.
Rye flourMilled from rye grain, the flour is darker, heavier, and low in gluten. It is sold as light, dark, or medium for home baking. The light and medium rye flour have most of the bran removed. Dark rye flour is whole grain. Also, see Pumpernickel in the glossary listing.
Finely ground flour made from rye grain; the most important bread flour after wheat.
- S -
SabayonA frothy custard of egg yolk, sugar, and wine that is made by whisking the ingredients over simmering water. Served warm as a dessert or sauce.
Also known as zabaglione. A delicious dessert containing egg yolks, wine, cream, and sugar. Can be eaten by itself or served as a sauce for other desserts.
SableA rich short cookie similar to shortbread.
SablefishThis saltwater fish has a soft:textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Called "Alaskan cod," "Black Cod," "Butterfish," and "Skil," although it is neither a cod nor a butterfish.
Sabrosas[Spanish] tasty.
SaccharinA product made from coal tar, used as a substitute for sugar. Saccharin has no food value.
Sachertorte[German] a rich chocolate cake.
Sachet BagCloth bag filled with select herbs used to season soups or stocks.
Saddle blanketsCowboy name for large pancakes.
SaddleThe undivided loins of an animal, roasted as a unit.
SaffronAn expensive spice made from the stigmas of the crocus flour. Saffron gives food a yellow color and exotic flavor. The spice can usually be found powdered or as whole threads (stigmas).
Fragrant, thread-like, hand-picked stigmas of the autumn Crocus sativus plant, originating in the eastern Mediterranean, now grown as well in Spain, France, and South America. It has a characteristic pungent aroma and flavor and bright yellow color. It is also very expensive and used sparingly. It takes only a few threads to achieve the desired flavor and color. Saffron is indispensable in paella and bouillabaisse. A good substitute for the yellow color is turmeric, though nothing can replace its unique flavor. [Sp.] azafr n.
SageAn herb (Salvia officinalis) native to the Mediterranean region; has soft, slender, slightly furry, gray-green leaves and a pungent, slightly bitter, musty mint flavor; used for medicinal and culinary purposes; available fresh or dried, used chopped, whole or rubbed.
A relative of the mint, it is the predominant spice in American turkey stuffing.
Sago PearlsMade from the starch of the sago palm, they can be used as a thickener in desserts.
SaguaroTall cactus found in Arizona; its fruit is made into jams and jellies.
Saignant[French] referring too meat preparation - undone.
SakeThe traditional Japanese wine made from white rice and malt. Sake has a relatively low alcohol content of 12 percent to 16 percent and can be used in sauces and marinades.
Japanese rice wine. Necessary to good Japanese cooking. The term "Ginjo" on the label means "superior." The term "Dai-ginjo" on the label means "superior premium." These indicate the highest grades of both pure rice (from which all sake is derived) and fortified sake. "Futsu-shu" is the lowest grade sake and is used in Japan most often as cooking wine. "Honjozo-shu" is a slightly better grade and is stronger and fuller; it can be served hot or cold. "Junmai-shu" is made from koji rice, yeast and water, and is usually served at room temp. "Kijo-shu" is sweeter and is generally served as an aperitif. And "Nigori," which is cloudy or "impure" and effervescent, is slightly sweet and therefore served at the end of a meal. Found in Japanese markets, larger supermarkets and liquor stores.
Sal[Spanish] salt.
Salamander1. A tool consisting of a heavy iron disk attached to a long metal shaft with a wooden handle. The disk is heated over a burner and held closely over food to quickly brown the top; also used to quickly caramelize the surface layer of sugar on dishes such as creme brulee so the custard below remains cold. 2. A small overhead broiler unit in a professional oven that quickly browns the tops of foods.
SalamiAny of a family of boldly seasoned sausages similar to "cervelats," except that they tend to contain more garlic and are coarser and drier than cervelats. Salamis are rarely smoked. "Pepperoni" is a popular type of salami.
A family of uncooked sausages which are safe to eat without heating because they have been cured.
[Italian] spiced pork sausage, prepared fresh or smoked.
Salchicha[Spanish] sausage.
Salisbury steakA ground beef patty seasoned with onions and seasonings before it is broiled or fried and served with gravy. Named after Dr. J. H. Salisbury who recommended eating a lot of beef for a wide variety of ailments.
A restaurant term for quality hamburger, made of chopped sirloin.
SalmagundiA mixture of many foods cut into pieces: meat, chicken, seafood, cheese, vegetables, combined with or without a sauce, served cold.
SalmisA fricassee or stew made from game birds.
SalmonPerhaps the best:known of all fish, pictures of salmon from 12,000 B.C. have been found. Salmon migrate from the seas into freshwater to spawn. Over the years, some varieties have become landlocked in lakes.
A succulent fish that lives most of its life in the sea but returns to freshwater to spawn. Salmon is usually available whole, cut into steaks or fillets, or canned. Fresh salmon can be poached, grilled or baked.
One of the most popular fin fish, rich, oily (beneficial oil). and highly flavorful. Many markets sell "Norwegian" salmon as if it were a distinct species; but it is actually Atlantic salmon (and Atlantic salmon is now grown in the Pacific Northwest, northern Europe, Chile, and any place else there is cold, protected sea water). There are five species of wild Pacific salmon: king (or Chinook) and sockeye, which are leaner than Atlantic salmon; coho (silver); and chum (keta).
Salpicon[Spanish] shredded or finely cut; Mexican shredded meat salad; hash. Cooked food cut into tiny pieces, usually as a filling for pastry.
Salsa cruda[Spanish] uncooked sauce.
Salsa de rojo[Spanish] red chili sauce.
Salsa1. Spanish for sauce. 2. Traditionally, a Mexican cold sauce made from tomatoes flavored with cilantro, chiles and onions. Green salsa, usually made with tomatillos and green chile, is called "salsa verde." 3. Generally, a cold chunky mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits and/or vegetables used as a sauce or dip.
[Spanish and Italian] sauce. Salsa refers to cooked or fresh combinations of fruits and/or vegetables. The most popular is the Latino mixture of tomatoes, onion and chile peppers.
SalsifyAlso called the oyster plant, (See Oyster plant) because it, at least theoretically, tastes like an oyster. Grayish or black (in which case it is called scorzonera) on the outside and pearly white on the inside, this root should be peeled and dropped into acidulated water to prevent discoloration.
Salt cod, driedCodfish that has been cured with salt, common in Mediterranean and Caribbean cooking. Also known as baccal . Must be soaked in water for at least 18 hours, changing the water several times, before you cook it. Buy in Delicatessens and seafood shops.
Salt hossCowboy term for corned beef.
Salt PorkSalt-cured pork which is essentially a layer of fat. Salt pork is from the pig's belly or sides. It's used to flavor beans, greens, and other dishes.
Salt substitute mixturesUsually a blend of granular potassium chloride and sodium chloride, intended for lowering sodium usage; tastes similar to regular table salt. Morton Lite Salt® Mixture is a leading brand.
Salt substituteUsually potassium chloride in granular form, intended for lowering sodium intake; generally bitter in taste. It is not recommended for baking.
SaltSalt (Sodium Chloride - NaCl) can be produced three ways - Open-air evaporation of salt brine in shallow ponds. By mining of rock salt deposits. By boiling and evaporation of higher purity brine. Salt contributes to flavor in baked goods, and controls fermentation of yeast in breads. Coarse grades are available for use as toppings on soft pretzels and other specialty breads.
1. A substance resulting from the chemical interaction of an acid and a base, usually sodium and chloride. 2. A white granular substance (sodium chloride) used to season foods.
SaltimboccaAn Italian dish comprised of thin slices of veal, rolled around ham and cheese, seasoned with sage and braised in butter until tender.
SaltpeterPotassium Nitrate. A common kitchen chemical used in preservation of meat or preparing corned beef or pork. May be purchased at drugstores.
Salvia[Spanish] sage.
SambucaAn anise-flavored Italian liqueur.
An anise-flavored, not-too-sweet Italian liqueur which is usually served with 2 or 3 dark-roasted coffee beans floating on top.
SamosaAn Indian snack of deep-fried (sometimes baked) dumplings stuffed with curried vegetables meat or both. Most common of the fillings is potatoes or cauliflower with peas.
Samovar[Russian] metal tea urn heated from an inner tube, in which charcoal is burnt.
Sandia[Spanish] watermelon.
Sangria[Spanish] drink made from sweet red wine, pieces of fresh fruit (usually orange and lemon), spices (cinnamon, cloves).:
Sangrita[Spanish] tequila and chile cocktail.
SardineThe name describing several varieties of weak:boned fish including the Alewife, French Sardine, Herring, and Sprat. Named after the French island of Sardina. Often salted, smoked, or canned and packed in oil, tomato, or mustard sauce.
Small, silvery fish with rich, tasty dark flesh. Enormously popular in Europe as an appetizer. Fresh sardines should be iced immediately after catching and are great broiled.
The common name for any of several small, soft-boned, saltwater fish including sprat, young pilchard and herring. The term "sardine" may be derived from Sardinia, one of the first areas to pack pilchards in oil.
Sarton[Spanish] skillet.
Sasafras[Spanish] sassafras.
SashimiA Japanese specialty, sashimi is raw fish sliced paper-thin, garnished with shredded vegetables and served with soy sauce, grated fresh ginger and wasabi (green horseradish). Because it's served raw, only the freshest and highest-quality fish is used.
A Japanese dish of raw fish, shellfish, and mollusks served with soy sauce, wasabi, and pickled vegetables. Sushi is similar but it is served with vinegared rice, and may also include nori seaweed, vegetables, and strips of cooked eggs similar to omelets. A common accompaniment to this is pickled ginger.
SatayA dish in which small pieces of meat (chicken, beef or lamb) are barbecued on a skewer and served with a spicy peanut sauce.
Also spelled sate and sateh. These are pieces of meat or fish threaded onto skewers and grilled over a flame. Several variations of these are seen throughout Southeast Asia. A spicy peanut sauce is served with meat satay in Vietnam and Thailand.
Saturated FatThis type of fat comes from animal sources and is generally solid at room temperature. The intake of saturated fats should be limited since they are associated with high cholesterol levels and the cause of some forms of cancer.
Mainly derived from animals, although some vegetables are also highly saturated. A good clue that a fat is saturated is that it is solid at room temperature.
Sauce piquanteA thick, sharp-flavored sauce made with roux and tomatoes, highly seasoned with herbs and peppers, simmered for hours.
Saucisse[French] a very small sausage.
Saucisson[French] sausage.
SauerbratenA German dish using beef marinated for several days in vinegar, red wine, garlic and various herbs and spices. When the beef has been thoroughly marinated, it is dried and cooked in bacon fat and served with sour cream and a sauce made from the marinade.
[German] sweet and sour beef in gravy.
Sauerkraut[German] sour cabbage; shredded and pickled cabbage.
Saumon[French] salmon.
Sausage casingsMade from beef or pork products, available by special order from good meat markets or by mail order.
SausageBasically, sausage is ground meat with fat, salt, seasonings, preservatives, and sometimes fillers. They may be smoked, fresh, dry or semi:dry, uncooked, partially cooked, or fully cooked. There are thousands of variations of sausage.
SautCooking or browning food in a small amount of hot oil or fat until softened and the flavors are released.
Transferring heat from a hot pan to the food with a small amount of fat, usually done at very high temperatures; a dry-heat cooking method
To brown or cook in a small amount of fat. (see Fry.)
To cook quickly in a pan on top of the stove until the food is browned. Sauteeing is often done in a small, shallow pan called a saute pan. You can saute in oil, wine, broth or even water.
[French] to prepare food by rapidly friying in shallow, hot fat, and turned until evenly browned.
Savarin[French] rich yeast cake, which is baked in a ring mold and soaked in liqueur-flavored syrup. Served cold with cream or cream sauce.
SavoryRelated to the mint family, savory has a flavor and aroma similar to a cross between mint and thyme. There are two varieties, summer and winter. Winter savory has the stronger flavor.
Scald(1) To heat milk to just below the boiling poin, when tiny bubbles form at the edge. (2) To dip certain foods in boiling water. (see Blanch.)
To heat milk or cream to a temperature just below the boiling point.
To prepare milk or cream by heating it to just below the boiling point; to prepare fruit or vegetables by plunging into boiling water to remove the skins.
ScallionActually a green onion, a scallion is an immature onion with a white base (not yet a bulb) and long green leaves. Both parts of the scallion are edible.
The immature green stalks of a bulb onion.
ScallopA bivalve mollusk with a ribbed, fan:shaped shell. In U.S. markets, only the adductor muscle, which opens and closes the shell is available. The Bay scallop is smaller, sweeter and a bit more succulent that their deep sea counterparts.
To bake food (usually cut in pieces) with a sauce or other liquid. The food and sauce may be mixed together or arranged in alternate layers in a baking dish, with or withour a topping of crumbs.
1) A dish cooked in a thick sauce, such as "scalloped potatoes." 2) To form a decorative edging along the raised rim of pie dough or other food. 3) A mollusk with fan-shaped shells. Bay scallops and the larger sea scallops are the types commonly found in supermarkets.
A mollusk with creamy texture and subtle but distinctive flavor. True bay scallops and se scallops are the best. Bake in layers with sauce. If desired top with crumbs.
ScaloppiniAn Italian cooking term referring to a thinly sliced, boneless, round cut of meat that is slightly floured (or breaded) and quickly sauteed.
[Italian] veal slices pounded very thin.
ScampiThe Italian name for the tail portion of any of several varieties of miniature lobsters. In the U.S., the term refers to large shrimp that are split and brushed in a garlic oil or butter, then broiled. "Scampo" is the singular form.
Another word for langoustine, or shrimp. This word is used in the U.S. as a description of shrimp broiled with butter, lemon, and garlic.
ScantAs in "scant teaspoon," not quite full.
Schnecken[German] round yeast coffee cakes.
Schnitzel[German] veal cutlets.
Schwarzbrot[German] dark whole grained bread.
Schwein[German] pork.
Scones[Great Britain] Biscuits; a small, lightly sweetened pastry similar to American biscuits, often flavored with currants.
ScoreTo make shallow or deep cuts in a decorative pattern with the point or a knife. Food such as a whole fish is often scored so that it will cook evenly.
To cut narrow slits partway through the outer surface of a food to tenderize it or to form a decorative pattern.
To make lengthwise gashes on the surface of food.
ScrappleA dish made from scraps of cooked pork mixed with cornmeal, broth, and seasonings. The cornmeal mixture is cooked, packed into loaf pans, chilled until firm, then cut and fried.
Meat dish of freshly-butchered pork scraps and cornmeal.
Scratch bakingBaking method that begins with measuring basic ingredients such as flour, sugar, butter and leavening. It requires a recipe rather than convenience products, like mixes.
ScrodScrod is the name for young cod (and haddock) that weight less that 2.5 pounds. It is a popular fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic with a lean, firm, white flesh. "Haddock," "hake," and "pollock" are close relatives of the cod.
ScungilleSee "Conch." A shellfish.
ScupAlso know as "porgie" or "sea bream." These fish are generally lean, and coarse:grained. Scup is often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.
Sea (solar) saltGenerally, salt made by outdoor evaporation of salt brine in shallow ponds; level of refinement may vary, as well as coarseness. It may be used for baking, although very coarse salt would not be suitable.
Sea bassA term used to describe a number of lean to moderately fat marine fish, most of which aren't actually members of the bass family. "Striped bass" and "Black Sea bass" are true bass. The "white sea bass" is a member of the drum family.
This small, firm-fleshed species is one of the best fish to cook whole. The black sea bass of the North Atlantic is the most commonly seen species. Look for clean and sweet-smelling fish.
Sea breamAlso know as "scup." These marine fish are generally lean, and coarse:grained. Sea bream is often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.
Sea devilThis large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Also called "angler fish" "monkfish," and "goosefish."
Sea perchThis important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.
Sea plumsCanned oysters.
Sea SaltConsidered by some to be the best salt for both kitchen and table use, sea salt is produced by evaporating sea water.
Sea troutAn anadromous (spawns in fresh water) brown trout that spends part to its life cycle in the sea. Sea trout have meat that is pink to red in color and is very comparable to salmon. May be prepared any way appropriate for salmon.
Sea UrchinA round spiny creature found off the coasts of Europe and America. The only edible portion is the coral, usually eaten raw with fresh lemon juice.
Sea vegetablesA rich source of iodine and an important food source in many oriental cultures. Sea vegetables such as dulse, hijiki and arame can be soaked briefly in water, squeezed dry, and cut up for salad. Laver (nori) is what you use to make sushi.
SearBrowning food quickly over very high heat; usually the first step in a combination cooking method
To brown food, usually meat, quickly over very high heat to seal in juices. Thus, seal is often used interchangeably with sear. Searing can be done under a broiler, in a skillet, or in a very hot oven. Example
To brown the surface of meat by a short application of intense heat.
To brown a food quickly on all sides using high heat to seal in the juices.
To prepare meat by browning it rapidly with fierce heat to seal in the juices and flavor of the meat.
Season1. Traditionally, to enhance a food's flavor by adding salt. 2. More commonly, to enhance a food's flavor by adding salt and/or pepper as well as herbs and other spices.
To add flavor to foods in the form of salt, pepper, herbs, spices, vinegar, etc. so that their taste is improved.
Seasoned FlourFlour with added seasoning, which may include salt, pepper, herbs, paprika, spices, or a combination.
Flour flavored with salt and pepper and sometimes other seasonings.
Seasoned Salta seasoning blend; its primary ingredient is salt with flavorings such as celery, garlic or onion added.
Seaweed sheets, driedAlso known as nori and laver. Find in Oriental markets and larger supermarkets.
Seca (seco)[Spanish] dried.
Secos y asados[Spanish] dried and roasted.
Self-rising cornmealOne of the first convenience baking mixes. It is a blend of cornmeal, flour, baking powder, and salt. Approximate equivalent = 1½ cups cornmeal, ½ cup all-purpose flour, 1 tablespoon baking powder, and 1 teaspoon salt.
Self-rising flourOne of the first "convenience mixes," self-rising flour is a blend of all-purpose flour, baking powder, and salt. When self-rising flour is used in a standard flour recipe, the baking powder and salt are then omitted. Approximate equivalent = 1 cup all-purpose flour, 1½ teaspoons baking powder, and ½ teaspoon salt.
An all-purpose flour to which baking powder and salt have been added.
SelleSaddle (See "Saddle of lamb, veal," etc.)
Semifirm cheeseCooked and pressed, but not so long-aged, not crumbly (edam, jarlsberg).
SemifreddoMeaning "half cold", this is gelato with whipped cream folded into it.
Semilla[Spanish] seed.
Semisoft cheese:Either cooked or uncooked, soft, but sliceable (gouda, tilsit, monterey jack).
SEMI-SWEET (higher sugar content) chocolateContains 15-35% chocolate liquor.
Baking chocolate that contains between 15 percent and 35 percent chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, lecithin, and vanilla. It may be used interchangeably in some recipes that call for bittersweet or sweet chocolate, but is not interchangeable with milk chocolate.
often utilized in cake and cookie recipes. Both terms are often used interchangeably, though bittersweet generally has more chocolate liquor (the paste formed from roasted, ground cocoa beans). Semisweet chocolate contains at least 35% chocolate liquor, while some fine bittersweets contain 50% or more. Either chocolate possess a deep, smooth, intense flavor that comes from the blend of cocoa beans used rather than added dairy products. Sugar, vanilla, and cocoa butter must be added to the liquor to enhance the chocolate flavor.
Semolina flourFlour produced by further grinding semolina (granules) made from durum wheat. Specialty breads sometimes call for part semolina or semolina flour. Also called pasta flour.
A delicately flavored, coarse flour made from durum wheat, primarily used in making pasta and bread.
SemolinaDurum wheat which is usually more coarse than regular wheat flours. Semolina is used to make pasta, gnocchi, puddings, and a variety of confections.
Sencillo[Spanish] simple.
Serenata[Spanish] codfish salad.
Serrano chilesSerrano means from the mountains; medium green chile, becoming brilliant red when ripe; extremely hot; usually shorter and thinner than the jalape o; a basic ingredient for salsas, sauces, marinades and escabeches; jalape os may be substituted.
Serrano seco[Spanish] dried red serrano chile.
SerranoA fiery hot, but flavorful, green chili, available fresh or canned. Serrano chiles are about 1½ inches long and are slightly pointed.
Sesame OilAn oil made from sesame seed. Light sesame oil has a nutty flavor and may be used in a variety of ways. The stronger flavored dark sesame oil is most often used as a flavoring in oriental dishes.
This oil pressed from the sesame sees has a slightly nutty flavor. Used as a flavoring in Oriental cooking, not a cooking oil. Used for flavoring a dish at the last minute. The health food-store version is not made from toasted sesame seed, so the flavor is very bland. Find in Oriental markets and larger supermarkets.
Sesame seeds, toastedOften used as garnish in many cuisines. To make: Toast raw sesame seeds in a frying pan over medium heat until golden brown. Shake and stir the seeds over the burner to get even coloring. Ready for use.
Sesame SeedsCrispy little seeds with a nutty flavor. Sesame seeds may be used in savory dishes or desserts, and are often sprinkled on baked foods.
Sesos[Spanish] brains.
SevicheA Latin American dish of very fresh, raw fish marinated in citrus juice (usually lime), onions, tomatoes and chiles; also spelled ceviche and cebiche.
A popular dish in Latin-American cookery, a dish of raw fish, scallops, or shrimp marinated in citrus juices until the flesh becomes "cooked". Onions, peppers, and chiles are then added to finish the dish.
ShadSmall, delicate saltwater fish related to the alewife, herring, and sardine. They are larger than herrings and spawn in fresh water. Some species of shad have been landlocked and live in freshwater lakes.
ShallotA bulb related to the onion and garlic. Shallots have a mild onion-like flavor.
A bulbous herb whose flavor resembles an onion. In some areas the term applies to the green tops as well as the bulb. They are called "scallions" or "green onions" elsewhere.
Shallow FryTo fry with enough oil to come halfway up the sides of the food.
Shark:A flavorful, low:fat fish that includes varieties such as Leopard, Mako, Spiny Dogfish, Soupfin and Thresher. Shark meat tends to have an ammonia:like smell that can be eliminated by soaking the flesh in milk or acidulated water.
Shaslik:Skewered, broiled marinated lamb.
Sheepshead:A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called "California Sheephead," "Fathead," and "Redhead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.
Shell steakThe same as Delmonico. (See "Delmonico".)
ShellTo remove the shell from nuts, legumes and shellfish.
ShellfishAny of many species of aquatic invertebrates with shells or carapaces found in saltwater and freshwater regions worldwide, most are edible; shellfish are categorized as crustaceans and mollusks.
Sherbetis made from unsweeted fruit juice and water. It is similar to sorbet except that it can contain milk, cream, egg whites or gelatin. Sherbet is lighter than ice cream but richer than an ice or sorbet.
A frozen mixture containing fruit juices, water or milk, to which various thickeners are added before freezing, such as egg whites or gelatin.
Sherry VinegarVinegar which has the rich, subtly nutlike Flavor of the popular fortified wine.
This recent addition to American markets is a good wine vinegar that is better than inexpensive balsamic vinegar. May be used in salads, and also as a marinade for grilled and broiled dishes.
Sherrya fortified, cask-aged wine, ranges in taste from dry to medium dry to sweet. It is enjoyed as an aperitif and is used as a flavoring in both savory and sweet recipes.
Shiitake MushroomAlso called Chinese, black or oriental mushroom (in its dried form). Shiitake is a strongly flavored mushroom used in both its fresh and dried form.
ShiitakeThe best domesticated mushroom, with a rich, distinctive, smoky flavor. Do not eat the stem, but save it for stocks. Can be found in most Oriental markets dried. Also found fresh or dried in some larger supermarkets.
Shirataki NoodlesThin, long, translucent noodles made from very fine strands of a gelatinous substance called konnyaku, which is taken from the "devil's tongue plant" (Japanese yam). Their texture is slightly rubbery and they do not have any flavor. The noodles will pick up the flavor of the broth or other ingredients in the dish in which they are simmered. They are available dried or packaged in water in a plastic casing that gives it a sausage-like shape. They are also found packaged in cans.
ShirrA method of cooking eggs. Whole eggs, covered with cream or milk and sometimes crumbs are typically baked in ramekins or custard cups.
Shirred eggsEggs broken into shallow ramekins containing cream or crumbs, then baked or broiled until set.
Shish KebabA Mediterranean dish of marinated meats (usually lamb or beef) and vegetables threaded on a skewer and grilled or broiled; also known as shashlik.
Cubes of meat cooked on a skewer, often with vegetables.
Short loinThe tenderloin.
Short ribsThe cut off ends of the prime rib, which should be cooked in liquid until quite tender.
ShortbreadA butter-rich cookie from Scotland, often seasoned with lemon, cinnamon, ginger, almonds and cumin.
Short-broilingThe same as parboiling or poaching.
ShorteningA white, flavorless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep frying; any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands.
Although good at holding air, shortening has little flavor. It is just a fat solid. Stick with butter for baking.
Short-grain riceThe most common rice in Japanese cooking. It has a short oval shape compared to long-grain rice. Also known as pearl rice.
Short'nin' breadSweet, rich quick bread.
ShoyuJapanese for Soy Sauce.
ShredTo cut into many, very fine strips or pieces.
To cut, slice or tear into thin strips. Also, to pull apart very tender cooked meats.
ShreddedFood that has been processed into long, slender pieces, similar to julienne.
Shrimp powder, driedTiny shrimp dried and ground into a fine powder. Found in Oriental markets.
Shrimp, DriedUsed in a broad range of Asian dishes, this ingredient adds flavor to fried rice, soups, stir-fries and other dishes. These small dehydrated shrimp lose any strong fishy odor or flavor during cooking.
ShrimpAmerican's most valuable and popular shellfish. This ten:legged crustacean got its name from English word "shrimpe," which means "puny person."
America's most popular shellfish, the best shrimp is freshly caught and fairly local. Most shrimp is frozen however.
ShrubAn old-fashioned sweetened fruit drink, sometimes spiked with liquor.
ShuckTo remove the outer shells from food. Examples are clams, oysters, and corn.
To peel off or remove the shell of oysters or clams, or the husk from an ear of corn.
Sichuan PepperNative to the Sichuan province of China, this mildly hot spice comes from the prickly ash tree. The berries resemble peppercorns and have a distinctive flavor.
Sidra[Spanish] cider.
SieveTo strain liquid from food through the fine mesh or perforated holes of a strainer or sieve.
A fine, mesh strainer.
SiftTo shake through a fine sieve, often to combine dry ingredients like flour and sugar.
To shake a dry, powdered substance through a sieve or sifter to remove any lumps
To pass flour or sugar through a sieve to remove lumps and add air.
Silver drageesTiny, ball-shaped, silver-colored candies.
Silver foil (Vark)Edible silver in ultra-thin sheets. Used for fancy garnishing in Indian cooking.
Silver hakeA small gray and white saltwater fish that is also called the "whiting." This low:fat fish, which is related to both the "cod" and the "hake," has a tender white fine:textured flesh and a flaky, delicate flavor.
Silver salmonThis high:fat variety of salmon provides a firm:textured, pink to orange:red flesh. Also called the "coho salmon."
SimmerCooking food in a hot liquid that is heated to below the boiling point (small bubbles may rise to the surface of the liquid, but the fluid is much calmer than boiling)
To cook in a liquid just below the boiling point, at temperatures of 185 to 2100F (85 to 990C). Bubbles form slowly and collapse below the surface.
To cook gently just below the boiling point. If the food starts boiling, the heat is too high and should be reduced.
To cook food in liquid which is heated to just below boiling point.
Sincronizada[Spanish] double-decker quesadilla.
SingeTo expose food, usually meat, to direct flame.
Single cream[Great Britain] Light cream.
SippetsSmall pieces of toast, soaked in milk or broth for the sick; bits of biscuit or toast used as a garnish.
Sirloin steakA juicy, flavorful cut of beef from the portion of the animal between the rump and the tenderloin.
SirloinA cut of beef that lies between the Short Loin (very tender) and the Round (much tougher).
Skate wingsThis is the edible portion of the skate. The flesh, when cooked, separates into little fingers of meat and has a distinctive rich, gelatinous texture. The taste is similar to that of scallops. Never buy skate with the inedible skin on as it is very difficult to remove.
SkateThis kite:shaped fish features edible fins. The flesh is firm, white, and sweet, similar to the texture and taste of scallop. Also called "Skate."
SkewerA thin, pointed metal or wooden rod onto which chunks of food are threaded, then broiled or grilled.
Long thin metal pins on which food is impaled for grilling or broiling.
SkilThis saltwater fish has a soft:textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also "black cod" and "sablefish," although it is not a cod.
SkimTo remove the surface layer (of impurities, scum, or fat) from liquids such as stocks and jams while cooking. This is usually done with a flat slotted spoon.
To remove cream from the surface of milk, fat from the tops of gravies and sauces or frothy scum from broths or jam and jellies during cooking.
SkinTo remove the skin of a food, such as poultry or fish, before or after cooking.
Skipjack tunaAlso called the "oceanic bonito," "watermelon," and "Arctic bonito," this small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light:colored meat similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "katsuo" and the Hawaiians call it "aku."
Skirt SteakA lean and tough but flavorful cut of beef from the primal short plate (below the ribs); often used for fajitas, but is also delicious grilled or stuffed.
The diaphragm muscle, a little know but delicious cut of beef, very tender and juicy if broiled quickly and served rare.
Skunk eggCowboy term for an onion.
Slap breadHand-shaped bread, slapped thin, such as tortillas and fry bread.
SliceTo slice is to cut into even slices, usually across the grain.
SliverTo cut a food into thin strips or pieces.
SmeltA rich and oily mild:flavored fish. Popular varieties of smelt include "Eulachon" and "Whitebait." The eulachon is called the "candlefish" because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high:fat flesh and use them for candles.
SmitaneWine sauce with sour cream and onions added.
SmokePreserving and flavoring food by exposing it to smoke
To expose foods to wood smoke to enhance their flavor and help preserve and/or evenly cook them.
SmokingMethod of curing foods, such as bacon or fish, by exposing it to wood smoke for a considerable period of time.
SmorgasbordA Swedish buffet of many dishes served as hors d oeuvres or a full meal. Similar buffets are served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the Soviet Union. Common elements of a smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and sturgeon, and a selection of canapes.
A Swedish buffet of many dishes served as hors d oeuvres or a full meal. Similar buffets are served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the Soviet Union. Common elements of a smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and sturgeon, and a selection of canap s.
SmotherCook slowly in covered pot or skillet with a little liquid added to saut ed mixture.
SnailPopular since prehistoric times, the snail was greatly favored by ancient Romans who set aside special vineyards where snails could feed and fatten.
SnapperThere are a few hundred species of this lean, firm:textured saltwater fish, 15 or so which are available in the U.S. The most popular snapper is the "red snapper." Some species of rockfish and tilefish are called snappers, but are not.
SnipTo cut food into small uniform lengths using kitchen shears or a small pair of scissors.
To cut quickly with scissors into fine pieces.
Snow peasEdible-pod peas with soft, green pods and tiny peas.
Soba noodleBuckwheat noodles, brown, flat, resembling spaghetti, used in Japanese cooking. Usually served in broth.
Sockeye salmonPrized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a firm, red flesh. Also known as the "redeye salmon."
Soda breadIrish bread; a baking powder bread, or one made with sour milk and baking soda.
Sofrito[Spanish] famous seasoning mix which includes cured ham, lard or canola oil, oregano, onion, green pepper, sweet chile peppers, fresh coriander leaves and garlic.
Soft grubHotel or diner food.
Soft PeaksA term used to describe beaten egg whites or cream. When the beaters are removed, soft peaks curl over and droop rather than stand straight up.
Soft-Ball StageA test for sugar syrup describing the soft ball formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed in cold water.
Soft-Crack StageA test for sugar syrup describing the hard but pliable threads formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed in cold water.
Softshell crabThe "soft:shell crab" is actually the blue crab caught just after molting (discarding its shell). This crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard:shell stages.
SoleA popular flatfish with a delicate flesh with a firm, fine texture. The best:known variety is "Dover sole" (also called "channel sole)." Much of what is sold as "sole" in the U.S. is actually a variety of flounder, which isn't a true sole.
Sonorenses[Spanish] Sonora-style.
Sopa seca[Spanish] dry soup with very little liquid left after cooking.
Sopa[Spanish] soup, dry or liquid.
SopaipillasPuffy, crisp, deep-fried bread. Accompanies many Southwestern meals.
[Spanish] sofa pillows; fritters soaked in honey; a puffed, fried bread, served with honey (or a mixture of honey and melted butter) or syrup or slit, then filled with various stuffings.
Sopes[Spanish] little round antojitos of tortilla dough.
Sorbet[French] water, sugar, and flavorings, usually fresh fruit, frozen in an ice-cream machine. Best eaten immediately after making.
Sorbetto(sor-BAY-toh) Sorbetto is a fruit-based gelato that contains no dairy products. You may know it better as sorbet.
SorghumA cereal grass with cornlike leaves and clusters of cereal grain at the top on tall stalks. The stalks can be used to make a light type molasses called sorghum syrup or simply sorghum.
SorrelSorrel is an herb that may be used in cream soups, omelets, breads, and other foods. Sorrel has a somewhat sour flavor because of the presence of oxalic acid.
Somewhere between an herb and a green, sorrel has a sour, lemony flavor. It is used to flavor sauces and is great in soups.
Sotanghonalso called bean threads, are made from the starch of green MUNG BEANS or MONGGO. Sold dried, cellophane noodles must be soaked briefly in water before using in most dishes. Presoaking isn't necessary when they're added to soups. They can also be deep-fried. Other names for sotanghon include cellophane noodles, bean thread vermicelli (or noodles), Chinese vermicelli, glass noodles and harusame.
Soubise[French] with a flavoring of pureed onion.
SouffleA mixture that is folded together with beaten egg whites and baked in a mold.
From the French for "breath," a fluffy, airy dish that can be sweet or savory. Souffles rise as they bake, forming a top hat-like shape and most should be served immediately.
SoupLiquid, usually water or milk, in which solid foods have been cooked. Soups can be served hot or cold and may be thick, chunky, smooth or thin.
Sour CreamPasteurized, homogenized light cream that has been treated with a lactic acid culture, giving it a tangy flavor. Regular commercial sour cream contains a minimum of 18 percent milk fat; light sour cream is made from half-and-half and contains 40 percent less milk fat than regular. Nonfat sour cream, a product thickened with stabilizers, is also available.
Cultured cream that gets its tanginess from lactic acid. Note that there is a big difference between sour cream and spoiled cream.
Sour orangesSeville oranges; ornamental oranges.
SourdoughYeasty fermented bread; the natural starter is kept in a jar or crock.
Souse loafWell:cooked pig's head and feet that are chopped into small pieces, marinated in lime juice, chili pepper and salt, then pressed into a loaf.
SouseTo cover food, particularly fish, in wine vinegar and spices and cook slowly. The food is cooled in the same liquid. This gives food a pickled flavor.
to pickle food in brine or vinegar; such as soused herrings.
Soy beanSoybean are round, under one-half inch in diameter, and usually yellowish, although the may be other colors. Soy bens are used to make a host of soy products, including tofu.
Soy flourA whole-grain, high-protein flour produced from hulled and roasted soybeans. The flour may be de-fatted, low-fat, or full-fat - check the ingredient labels to determine.
Soy milkthe liquid left after beans have been crushed in hot water and strained. Soy milk is a favorite beverage in the East. In Hong Kong, soy milk is as popular as Coca-Cola is in the United States.
Soy sauce, darkUsed in dishes in which you want to color the meat and sweeten the flavor with caramel sugar. Most common soy sauce.
Soy sauce, JapaneseChinese soy is very different from Japanese. Japanese soys contain much more wheat flour and sugar. Buy in larger quantities in a Japanese market. It is cheaper that way and it will keep well if kept sealed.
Soy sauce, lightTo be used when you don't want to color a dish with caramel coloring, which is what dark soy contains. Do not confuse this with "Lite" soy sauce.
Soy sauce, liteLower in salt and flavor than other soy sauce.
Soy SauceA sauce made from fermented, boiled soybeans and roasted wheat or barley; its color ranges from light to dark brown and its flavor is generally rich and salty (a low-sodium version is available); used extensively in Asian cuisines (especially Chinese and Japanese) as a flavoring, condiment and sometimes a cooking medium.
SoybeanThe most nutritious and easily digested of all beans, the soybean is better known for its products than for the bean itself.
SpaetzleThis is a coarse noodle from Alsace and Germany made of flour, eggs, oil, and water. The soft dough is dropped into boiling water (with a spaetzle press) and poached until cooked through. The noodle is then fried in butter or oil and served as a side dish to meat dishes. Spaetzle may also be flavored with cheese, mushrooms, and herbs.
Spaghetti SquashWhen cooked, the flesh of this watermelon-shaped squash separates into strands similar to spaghetti; thus, its name. Spaghetti squash has a creamy-yellow color and a slightly nutty flavor.
The flesh of this squash resembles a mass of spaghetti-like strands. It is very bland in comparison to other winter squash. Bake or steam it until done (cook whole, piercing skin a few times). Cut it in half and scrape out the strands, toss with sauce or butter and seasonings, or make into pancakes as you would grated zucchini.
SpaghettiItalian for a length of cord or string and used to describe long, thin, solid rods of pasta with a circular cross section.
[Italian] long strands of pasta of various thicknesses and colors.
Spanish onionsLike Bermuda onions, these are large, relatively mild, easy to handle, and keep well for weeks. Good for baking.
Spare ribsThe long cut of meat from the lower breast bone of the hog. Spareribs are best cooked slowly, so that their fat can be rendered and they can become tender.
SpatchcockingA technique whereby poultry shears or a sharp knife is used to split chicken along backbone, leaving breastbone intact. Spatchcocked chicken is generally served with a vinaigrette sauce
SpatulaA versatile utensil available in a variety of shapes and sizes and generally made from metal, wood or rubber.
Spatzle, SpaetzleA dish of tiny noodles or dumplings made with flour, eggs, water or milk, salt and sometimes nutmeg. The spaetzle dough can be firm enough to be forced through a sieve or colander with large holes. The dough is then boiled and tossed in butter before being served.
SpeckCured and smoked pork flank.
SpeltAn often neglected wheat berry, overlooked in favor of those better suited to bread making. Spelt has a magnificent wheaty flavor. A very similar grain is the Italian grain farro.
Spice GrinderA device used to mill spices into granular or powdered form.
SpicesThe seeds and skin of plants ( berries, bark, fruits, unopened flowers) used to flavor foods. Unlike herbs, spices are almost always dried.
SpiderA gadget used for adding and retrieving deep-frying foods to or from the hot oil.
SpiediniAn Italian word for skewers of meat or fish grilled over a flame or under a broiler. Known as Spiedies in the Eastern United States.
SpiedinoFried cheese with anchovy sauce.
SpinachA vegetable with dark green, spear-shaped leaves that can be curled or smooth and are attached to thin stems; the leaves have a slightly bitter flavor and are eaten raw or cooked.
The best spinach is, of course, fresh, and should have crisp, robustly green leaves. Always wash well in several changes of water and remove extra-thick stems.
SpitSharp metal rod used to hold food for roasting over an open heat source.
Revolving skewer or metal rod on which meat, poultry or game is roasted over a fire or under a grill. Process creates high heat and forces fat to spit out of meats.
Split peasGreen or yellow, and mealy when cooked. Good soup base.
SpongeA thick yeast batter that is allowed to ferment and develop into a light, spongy consistency. It is then combined with other ingredients to form a yeast dough. The sponge will give the bread a slightly tangy flavor.
The portion of dough in bread-making containing all or part of the yeast, to which are added the remaining ingredients.
Spoon breadA kind of baked cornmeal pudding.
SpotA small fish (approximately 1.5 pounds) belonging to the drum family. In 1925, these fish appeared in New York harbor in such vast numbers that they clogged the condenser pumps of the electric company and caused a blackout.
Spotted pupChuckwagon name for raisin pudding; without the raisins, it was just called "pup."
Spreada) Distributing a product/ingredient in a thin layer over the surface of another product.
b) A fat sold in stick form or in tubs that is less than 80 percent fat.
Products in sticks or tubs that are less than 80 percent fat. They are not recommended for baking due to their water content.
SprigLeaves of an herb still attached to the stem often used as a garnish.
Spring rollThin sheets of dough which are filled with meat, seafood, or vegetables and rolled into logs. Spring rolls are most often deep fried, though they may also be steamed. Chinese versions use wheat dough, while the Vietnamese and Thai versions use a rice paper wrapper.
Springerle[German] anise-flavored cookies or pastries.
Springform moldBaking tin with hinged sides, held together by a metal clamp or pin, which is opened to release the cake or pie which was cooked inside.
Springform PanA round cake pan a little deeper than a standard cake pan. Springform pans have a clamp on the side which releases the sides from the bottom, leaving the cake intact. It's commonly used for cheesecake.
SprinkleScattering particles of sugar or toppings over a surface, like frosting, cake or bread.
Spumon[Italian] Ice cream made with fruit and nuts.
SquabA young domesticated pigeon that has never flown and is therefore very tender. Squabs are normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old. May be prepared in any manner suitable for chicken.
A domesticated pigeon no more than 4 weeks old. Weighing less than a pound when slaughtered, squab has tender meat with little fat and a mild flavor; suitable for broiling, roasting or sauteing.
A twelve to fourteen ounce pigeon.
Squash blossomsBlossoms of winter squashes such as zucchini, yellow squash and pumpkin; commonly used in Southwestern cooking; best when used the day they are picked or bought; may be cooked briefly for use in soups or sauces, or stuffed and fried.
SquashThe edible fleshy fruit of various members of the gourd (Cucurbitaceae) family; generally divided into two categories based on peak season and skin type: summer and winter.
Squaw breadIndian bread deep-fried in 6-inch circles; fry bread; popovers.
SquawberriesRed-orange berries from thorny desert bushes.
SquidThis ten:armed cephalopod is related to the octopus and the cuttlefish. Squid varies in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavor. Over:cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.
This cephalopod has become popular in the United States, as long as you call it calamari. Fresh squid should be purple to white- avoid any squid with brown coloring- and smell sweet and clean. Squid freezes well, and loses little flavor during defrosting and refreezing.
Squirrel canCowboy term for large can used for after-meal scraps.
SquirrelAn abundant, largely arboreal rodent. Red and gray squirrels are commonly eaten in the U.S. The gray squirrel is fatter and has a flavor considered by many as superior to the red squirrel. Squirrels do not have a strong "gamey" taste.
SrirachaA hot sauce made from sun-ripened chiles which are ground into a smooth paste along with garlic. It is excellent in soups, sauces, pastas, pizzas, hot dogs, hamburgers, chow mein or on almost anything else to give it a delicious, spicy taste.
Stainless SteelAn alloy of steel. Stainless steel will not react with foods, nor does it rust or corrode. When used in pans, stainless steel often is combined with copper or aluminum since it does not conduct heat well.
StandardIn home baking, this refers to recipes, measuring tools, ingredients, methods, and equipment that are used to produce a defined product with consistent results to assist manufacturers or consumers.
StapleThe chief item or most important items made, grown or sold in a particular place, region, country, etc.
Star AniseA star-shaped dry seed pod with a flavor similar to fennel.
Star-shaped pod has a similar but stronger flavor and more fragrance than the botanically-unrelated aniseed; most often cooked whole and strained from sauces and marinade, but sometimes ground for spice rubs and pastes.
StarchCarbohydrate obtained from cereals and potatoes or other tubers.
StarterA mixture of flour, water, yeast and sugar that is allowed to ferment in a warm place until foamy. A portion of the starter is used (about 2 cups) in place of a package of yeast in breads, usually after "feeding" the mixture with additional flour and water. Starters are kept in the refrigerator after initial development and "fed" every two weeks.
Steak DianeA very thin steak.
Steak tartareVery lean beef, minced and served raw.
SteamExposing food directly to steam to cook it, usually by placing it in a basket or rack above a boiling liquid in a covered pan; a moist cooking method
To cook in steam with or without pressure. The steam may be applied directly to the food, as in a steamer or pressure cooker.
A method of cooking foods over, not in, hot liquid, usually water. The heat cooks the food while the vapors keep it moist.
to cook food in the steam created by boiling water.
SteepTo allow a substance to stand in liquid below the boiling point for the purpose of extracting flavor, color, or other qualities.
To allow a food to stand in water that is just below the boiling point in order to extract flavor or color.
To soak in liquid until saturated with a soluble ingredient; soak to remove an ingredient, such as to remove salt from smoked ham or salted cod.
SterilizeTo destroy germs by exposing food to heat at specific temperatures.
StewBlanching small pieces of meat and then serving with a sauce and various garnishes, such as vegetables; a combination cooking method similar to braising
To simmer food in a small amount of liquid.
To cook food in liquid for a long time until tender, usually in a covered pot.
To simmer food slowly in a covered pan or casserole.
Stewing ChickenA size classification for chicken. A stewing chicken is over 10 months old and weighs from 4 to 6 pounds.
Stiff PeaksA term describing the consistency of beaten egg whites or cream. When the beaters are removed from the mixture, the points will stand up straight.
Stilton CheeseA hard blue cheese made from whole cow's milkStilton has a rich texture that is slightly crumbly, and a pale-yellow interior with blue-green. Stilton's flavor has a mellow cheddarlike quality with the tangy pungency of blue cheese.
Stir:To mix food materials with a circular motion for the purpose of blending or securing uniform consistency.
Using a spoon to mix ingredients with a circular or figure-eight motion.
To move foods around with a spoon in a circular motion. Stirring is done to move foods when cooking. It is also used to cool foods after cooking. Most importantly, if a recipes calls for stirring to combine foods, such as a batter, before cooking, it usually means to gently mix just until well combined, as opposed to beating, which takes more strokes.
To mix with a circular movement, using a spoon or fork or other utensil.
Stir-frySimilar to sauteing, but with use of less fat; food is stirred constantly during cooking, usually cooked in a wok
To cook quickly over high heat with a small amount of oil by constantly stirring. This technique often employs a wok.
Stock cubes[Great Britain] Bouillon cubes.
StockA rich extract of soluble parts of meat, fish, poultry, etc. A basis for soups or gravies.
A flavored broth from meats, fish, shellfish, and vegetables. These are the basis of sauce and soup making.
StockpotA deep pot with straight sides and handles used to cook stocks.
Stollen:A German yeast bread traditionally made at Christmas time.
Stone fruitsStone fruits are simply fruits with a stone, such as peach or plum.
Stone GroundGrain milled between grindstones to retain more nutrients than other grinding methods.
Stoneground flour or mealGrain ground into flour between stones. It may be coarse or fine and is usually whole grain.
StrainTo pour a liquid through a strainer, sieve, or cheesecloth to remove unwanted particles or to separate out solids. Example
To pass a liquid or moist mixture through a colander, sieve or cheese cloth to remove solid particles.
To separate liquids from solids by passing them through a metal or cloth sieve (such as cheesecloth).
StrainerA kitchen utensil with a perforated or mesh bottom used to strain liquids or semi-liquids, or to sift dry ingredients such as flour or confectioners' sugar. Strainers, also called sieves, come in a variety of sizes and shapes with various mesh sizes.
StrasbourgeoiseServed with goose livers and truffles.
Straw mushrooms, cannedSmall button-like mushrooms indigenous to Asia. Fresh ones are so delicate that they aren't usually shipped.
Straw MushroomsSmall, tan mushrooms with a mild flavor.
StrawberryA lush, red berry from a ground-creeping plant that grows wild in large areas of Asia, Europe and North and South America.
StreakerUsually refers to bean purees or other colorful pastes made from nondairy products and used to decorate plates and finished dishes; may also refer to brightly colored cremas.
Streaky Bacon[Great Britain] American bacon.
StreuselA delicious topping of sugar, butter, flour, and other spices that adds flavor and crunch to crumb cakes, coffee cakes and some muffins.
Striped bassThis true bass is found along the Atlantic coast. It features six to eight horizontal stripes and provides a moderately fat, firm flesh with a mild, sweet flavor.
Firm-textured fish with meaty, pinkish flesh. When wild, striped bass are highly flavorful. Can be substituted in recipes that call for cod or other milder fish, and some stronger fish too.
StroganoffA dish of thinly sliced beef (usually tenderloin or top loin), onions, and mushrooms sauteed in a combination of butter and sour:cream sauce. Often served with a rice pilaf. Invented by Count Paul Stroganoff in the 19th century.
Strudel[Austrian] thin leaves of pastry dough, filled with fruit, nuts or savory mixtures, which are rolled and baked and finally iced or frosted. Savory versions of this are similar to the Russian coulibiac.
StuffTo fill a cavity in food with another food.
StuffingA seasoned mixture of food used to fill the cavity of poultry, fish, vegetables or around which a strip of meat, fish or vegetable may be rolled.
A well-seasoned mixture of bread or rice, spices, vegetables, and usually meat that is "stuffed" inside the cavity of poultry or meat.
SturgeonA name for various migratory species of fish know for its rich, high:fat flavor, firm texture, and excellent roe. Their average weight is 60 pounds, but one freshwater "Beluga" sturgeon was 26 feet long and weighed 3,221 pounds.
Sub gumA stew of Chinese vegetables.
SuchetWith the flavoring of carrot.
SuckerA name popularly applied to various types of freshwater fish closely related to carp. Suckers live and feed near the bottoms of streams. They may be cooked in any way appropriate for other fish.
SuckeyesCowboy term for pancakes.
Sucre[French] sugar.
Suero de la leche[Spanish] buttermilk.
SuetThe hard fat around the kidneys and loins of beef, mutton or pork.
Sugar alcoholsSugar alcohols like mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol are sweeteners that occur naturally in fruits, and are often added to certain foods. They're called "alcohols" because of their chemical structure, not because they contain the kind of alcohol in drinks like beer, wine and spirits. Because sugar alcohols do not promote tooth decay, they are often used in "sugarless" gum. They are also used to add texture to some foods. Some studies suggest that because sugar alcohols take longer to break down than regular sugar, they may cause a less rapid spike in blood sugar than sugar-sweetened products. But remember that they are not calorie-free, are not likely to help with weight control and, when consumed in excessive amounts, can lead to intestinal gas, cramping or diarrhea.
Sugar Free, Sugar-freeA food containing less than 0.5 grams of sugar per serving.
Sugar Snap PeaA sweet pea that is a hybrid of the English pea and snow pea; the bright green, crisp pod and the paler green, tender seeds are both edible.
Sugar snapsAlso called snap peas, these flavorful pea-filled pods are newly developed (introduced in 1979). Sugar snaps are crisp, with crunchy pods and sweet peas.
Sugar syrupDifferentiating from natural syrups, this term refers to a solution of sugar and water. Simple syrups are made with equal quantities of water and sugar. Heavy syrup is made with twice as much sugar as water. These types of syrups are used in making sorbets, soft drinks, and for soaking cakes.
SugarSugar or sucrose is a carbohydrate occurring naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant kingdom. It is the major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the sun's energy into food. Sugar for home baking is produced in greatest quantities from sugar cane and sugar beets.
Granulated sugar-· Fine or extra-fine white sugar crystals. Often referred to as "white sugar" in home baking
Brown sugar·- Sugar crystals contained in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color components. Dark and light brown sugars may be substituted according to individual preferences for product color or taste.
Confectioners' sugar· - Also called powdered sugar. See glossary listing.
Raw sugar· - About 98 percent sucrose and tan or brown in appearance; it is a coarse, granulated solid obtained on evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice. It is not considered fit for direct use as food or a food ingredient by the USDA.
Turbinado sugar· - Raw sugar refined to a light tan color by washing in a centrifuge under sanitary conditions. Surface molasses is removed in the washing process and is closer to refined sugar than raw.
A sweet, water-soluble, crystalline carbohydrate; used as a sweetener and preservative for foods.
SukiyakiJapanese dish of meat, vegetables and seasonings, usually cooked at the table.
SulfitesSulfur-containing agents (the salts of sulfurous acid) used as preservatives for some processed and packaged foods to inhibit spoilage or oxidation.
SultanasGolden raisins made from sultana grapes.
A type of large raisins, originally Turkish. [Great Britain] Seedless white raisins.
Sumac[Middle East] spice that comes from the grated skin of a dark berry that possesses a a slightly acidic, astringent flavor.
Summer SausageA style of sausage that is cured and air dried. Summer sausage may or may not be smoked.
There are many varieties of this gourd including zucchini, yellow straightneck, yellow crookneck and pattypan. All summer squash are similar in taste and texture.
These light, fleshy squashes of the late summer are available in many varieties, most notably zucchini and yellow squash. Choose squash that is very firm.
SunchokesAlso called Jerusalem artichokes, sunchokes are the knobby roots of a perennial sunflower. They resemble ginger in appearance and have a subtle, delicious flavor. Their high sugar content enables them to brown well when fried or roasted.
Sun-dried tomatoesWhen a tomato is dried in the sun (or more likely the oven) the end result is a shriveled, intensely flavored tomato. They are usually packed in olive oil or packaged dried (when dried soak them in hot water to reconstitute).
SunfishAny of a number of North American freshwater fish closely related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors and interesting shapes, popular varieties include "Bluegill," "Crappie," and "Calico Bass," commonly called "Sunnies."
Sunflower seedsSeeds of the sunflower, these can be roasted or dried in or out of their shells. They can be added to many sweet and savory dishes, including salads, baked goods, and granola.
Sunsweet Lighter Bakea 100% fat- and cholesterol-free baking ingredient that replaces butter, margarine, oil or shortening in scratch recipes and packaged mixes. Made from a blend of dried plums and apples, this new fat "imposter" creates moist, chewy baked goods that are lower in fat. Lighter Bake is located in the cooking oil or baking ingredients section of supermarkets nationwide.
Superfine SugarKnown as castor (or caster) sugar in Britain, superfine sugar is more finely granulated and dissolves almost instantly, making it perfect for making meringues and sweetening cold liquids. Granulated sugar can be substituted cup for cup for superfine.
Also called caster sugar, this finely granulated sugar is good in meringues and cold drinks; it dissolves quickly and easily. It can be made by blenderizing granulated sugar in the blender until it is powdery.
Suppe[German] soup.
Supreme de volailleBreast of chicken.
SupremeA rich heavy cream sauce.
SurimiImitation crab meat processed from fish.
SushiA Japanese dish of thin layers of raw fish wrapped around cakes of cold cooked rice. Sushi can also consist of ingredients wrapped in rice and held by a seaweed wrapper known as nori.
Swamp seedRice.
Cooking a food, usually vegetables, in a small amount of fat, usually covered over low heat without browning the food until it becomes softened and releases moisture; usually used as a preparatory step to other cooking methods to make the finished product more flavorful in a shorter amount of time
SweatTo cook foods over gentle heat, usually covered or partly covered, until moisture is released.
Swedes[Great Britain] Turnips.
Swedish meatballsA combination of ground meat (often a combination of beef, pork, or veal), sauteed onions, milk:soaked breadcrumbs, beaten eggs, and seasonings. The mixture is formed into small balls, then sauteed until brown.
Sweet ChocolateVery similar in composition to semisweet chocolate, sweet chocolate simply has more sugar added and less chocolate liquor. It's sold on grocery shelves in the baking section. For people with a real sweet tooth, sweet chocolate can be substituted for semisweet in recipes without a significant change in texture.
Unsweetened chocolate with sugar added. It is often used in dessert recipes. The two most common forms are
Highly like the composition of semisweet chocolate, sweet chocolate has more sugar added and less chocolate liquor.
Sweet PeppersA term which usually describes a variety of mild peppers of the Capsicum family. Bell peppers, pimientos, and banana peppers are sweet peppers.
Sweet PotatoA variety of sweet potato with a thick, dark orange skin and an orange flesh that remains moist when cooked; sometimes erroneously called a yam.
Contrary to popular belief, the sweet potato is different from the yam. Sweet potatoes are bright with orange flesh, though some varieties have yellow, white, or even purple flesh.
SweetbreadsConsidered a delicacy, sweetbreads are the two thymus glands (in the throat and near the heart) of veal, young beef, lamb and pork.
The culinary term for the thymus gland of an animal. Those of veal and lamb are most commonly eaten. The pancreas is also considered a sweetbread, but its taste and texture is inferior to that of the thymus gland.
Sweetened Condensed MilkWhole milk mixed with 40 percent to 45 percent sugar. The mixture is heated until 60 percent of the water evaporates leaving a thick, sweet syrup. Also known as condensed milk.
Milk that has been evaporated to about half of its volume and has sugar added. Sticky and sweet.
Swiss CheeseA hard, pale-yellow cheese originally from the Emmental valley of Switzerland, distinguished by large holes in its texture. Made from cow's milk, its flavor is described as nutty, mild and sweet.
Swiss roll tinJellyroll pan.
Swiss steakRound or chuck steak that has been tenderized by pounding, coated with flour, and browned on both sides. The meat is then smothered in chopped tomatoes, onions, carrots, celery, broth, and seasonings, then baked for about two hours.
Swiss steakA dish made with a thick cut of steak--usually chuck or round--which is tenderized by pounding, coated with flour and seasoning, and browned. The steak is then topped with tomatoes, onions, and other vegetables, then simmered or baked for about 2 hours.
Swiss steakA steak (usually bottom round, sometimes lean chuck) into which seasoned flour has been pounded before cooking.
SwordfishA saltwater food and sport fish with mild:flavored, moderately fat flesh. The flesh is red, dense, and meat:like. Thanks to its firmness, swordfish can be prepared by baking, broiling, grilling, poaching, or sauteing.
SwordfishA large sport fish found off the coast in temperate waters throughout the world. Swordfish can weigh up to 1,000 pounds and have moderately fatty flesh that is dense and meat-like.
SwordfishHighly popular fish, wonderful on the grill. When buying, look for bright flesh with tight swirls; should smell good. Skin is inedible.
SyllabubAn English dessert comprised mainly of whipped cream sweetened with sugar and flavored with sherry, brandy, or Cointreau. Lemon zest, fruit preserves or puree may also be swirled into the cream.
SyrupSugar dissolved in liquid, usually water; it is often flavored with spices or citrus zest.
SyrupThick, sweet liquid made by boiling sugar with water or fruit juices.
Szechuan PeppercornsNot, in fact, related to black and white peppercorns, these are tiny dried berries that contain a seed. They have a pungent aroma and mildly spicy flavor and can be purchased whole or in powdered form.
Szechwan Chile SauceA sauce or paste made from chiles, oil, salt and garlic and used as a flavoring in Chinese Szechwan cooking; also known as chile paste or chile paste with garlic.

Dr. Chef P Soundararajan, honorary member of World Chefs and Founder General Secretary of Indian Federation of Culinary Associations (IFCA), former Corporate Executive Chef at Mahindra Holidays and Resorts, handcrafted this Culinary Dictionary with his profound knowledge and 40 years of professional experience as a chef. He gives a brief and unique definition for every word here.

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Dr. Chef Soundar

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Dr.Chef Soundararajan P is a culinarian & mentor , founder of Culinary Vision, founder General Secretary of Indian Federation of Culinary Associations and Chairman of the Marketing committee of WorldChefs. He writes about Culinary Techniques and shares his profound knowledge here in his blog. [Read More....]

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